The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century

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  • The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cut off from Europe by the embargo and the British blockade in the War of 1812 (1807–15), entrepreneurs opened factories in the Northeast that set the stage for rapid industrialization modeled on British innovations. From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. As a result, the United States has been the birthplace of 161 of Britannica's 321 Greatest Inventions, including items such as the airplane, internet, microchip, laser, cellphone, refrigerator, email, microwave, personal computer, Liquid-crystal display and light-emitting diode technology, air conditioning, assembly line, supermarket, bar code, automated teller machine, and many more. The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks. The United States population had some semi-unique advantages in that they were former British subjects, had high English literacy skills, for that period (over 80% in New England), had strong British institutions, with some minor American modifications, of courts, laws, right to vote, protection of property rights and in many cases personal contacts among the British innovators of the Industrial Revolution. They had a good basic structure to build on. Another major advantage, which the British lacked, was no inherited aristocratic institutions. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of rivers and streams along the Atlantic seaboard, provided many potential sites for constructing textile mills necessary for early industrialization. The technology and information on how to build a textile industry was largely provided by Samuel Slater (1768–1835) who emigrated to New England in 1789. He had studied and worked in British textile mills for a number of years and immigrated to the United States, despite restrictions against it, to try his luck with U.S. manufacturers who were trying to set up a textile industry. He was offered a full partnership if he could succeed—he did. A vast supply of natural resources, the technological knowledge on how to build and power the necessary machines along with a labor supply of mobile workers, often unmarried females, all aided early industrialization. The broad knowledge of the Industrial Revolution and Scientific revolution helped facilitate understanding for the construction and invention of new manufacturing businesses and technologies. A limited government that would allow them to succeed or fail on their own merit helped. After the close of the American Revolution in 1783, the new government continued the strong property rights established under British rule and established a rule of law necessary to protect those property rights. The idea of issuing patents was incorporated into Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution authorizing Congress "to promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. The invention of the Cotton Gin by American Eli Whitney made cotton potentially a cheap and readily available resource in the United States for use in the new textile industry. One of the real impetuses for United States entering the Industrial Revolution was the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, the War of 1812 (1812–14) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–15) which cut off supplies of new and cheaper Industrial revolution products from Britain. The lack of access to these goods all provided a strong incentive to learn how to develop the industries and to make their own goods instead of simply buying the goods produced by Britain. Modern productivity researchers have shown that the period in which the greatest economic and technological progress occurred was between the last half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. During this period the nation was transformed from an agricultural economy to the foremost industrial power in the world, with more than a third of the global industrial output. This can be illustrated by the index of total industrial production, which increased from 4.29 in 1790 to 1,975.00 in 1913, an increase of 460 times (base year 1850 – 100). American colonies gained independence in 1783 just as profound changes in industrial production and coordination were beginning to shift production from artisans to factories. Growth of the nation's transportation infrastructure with internal improvements and a confluence of technological innovations before the Civil War facilitated an expansion in organization, coordination, and scale of industrial production. Around the turn of the 20th century, American industry had superseded its European counterparts economically and the nation began to assert its military power. Although the Great Depression challenged its technological momentum, America emerged from it and World War II as one of two global superpowers. In the second half of the 20th century, as the United States was drawn into competition with the Soviet Union for political, economic, and military primacy, the government invested heavily in scientific research and technological development which spawned advances in spaceflight, computing, and biotechnology. Science, technology, and industry have not only profoundly shaped America's economic success, but have also contributed to its distinct political institutions, social structure, educational system, and cultural identity. American values of limited government, meritocracy, entrepreneurship, and self-sufficiency are drawn from its legacy of pioneering technical advances. (en)
  • La historia tecnológica e industrial de los Estados Unidos describe el surgimiento de Estados Unidos como la nación tecnológicamente más poderosa y avanzada del mundo. La disponibilidad de tierras y mano de obra, la diversidad de clima, la presencia abundante de canales navegables, ríos y vías fluviales costeras, y la abundancia de recursos naturales que facilitan la extracción de energía barata, el transporte rápido y la disponibilidad de capital contribuyeron a Estados Unidos la rápida industrialización. Los pediux investigadores modernos de productividad han demostrado que el período en el que el mayor progreso económico y tecnológico que ocurrió fue entre fines del siglo XVIII y la primera mitad del siglo XX. Durante este período, el país pasó de ser una simple economía agrícola a la primera potencia industrial de la tierra, con más de un tercio de la producción industrial mundial. Esto puede ser ilustrado por el índice de la producción industrial total, que pasó de 4,29 en 1790 a 1,975.00 en 1913, un aumento de 460 veces. El crecimiento de la infraestructura, transporte del país con mejoras internas y una confluencia de innovaciones tecnológicas antes de la Guerra Civil facilitó la expansión de la organización, la coordinación y la escala de la producción industrial. Alrededor del siglo 20, la industria americana había superado sus homólogos europeos y económicamente la nación comenzó a hacer valer su poder militar. Aunque la Gran Depresión desafió su impulso tecnológico, Estados Unidos salió de ella y de la Segunda Guerra Mundial como uno de las dos mundiales superpotencias. En la segunda mitad del siglo 20, cuando los Estados Unidos se vio envuelta en competencia con la Unión Soviética por la primacía política, económica y militar, el gobierno invirtió fuertemente en investigación científica y desarrollo tecnológico que dio lugar a avances en los vuelos espaciales , la informática y la biotecnología que gracias a eso hoy es el líder en todos los campos mencionados. La ciencia, la tecnología y la industria no sólo han modelado profundamente el éxito económico de Estados Unidos, sino que también han contribuido a sus propias instituciones políticas, la estructura social, sistema educativo y la identidad cultural del país. Valores estadounidenses de la meritocracia, el espíritu empresarial y la auto-suficiencia se han extraído de su legado de ser pionero en los avances técnicos. (es)
  • アメリカ合衆国の技術と産業の歴史について概説する。アメリカ合衆国が急速な工業化を果たしたのには、様々な要因、条件が貢献しており、例えば、広大な土地と労働力、気候の多様性、航行可能な運河・川・海岸水路の多様で豊富な存在、安価なエネルギーを得ることを可能とする豊かな天然資源、迅速な輸送力および資本力が挙げられる。 多くの歴史家に拠れば、経済と技術が大きく発展したのは18世紀の終わりから20世紀初頭の間に起こったということで一致している。この期間、国全体が原始的な農業経済から世界の工業生産の3分の1以上を生み出すような最大の工業国にした。このことを総工業生産量の指数で表示すると、1790年の4.29に対し1913年の1975(1850年の総生産量を100とした)と実に460倍の成長となっていることからも明らかである。 アメリカの植民地が独立を確実なものにした1781年、工業生産やその連係において大きな変化が起きており、伝統職人から陶芸工に至るまで第一次産業革命の始まりとなった。南北戦争までに輸送基幹施設が発展し、技術革新が集中した結果、組織の拡大と事業の連係が進み、第二次産業革命となった。20世紀への変わり目頃、アメリカ合衆国の工業力はヨーロッパの諸国を経済的に凌駕し、さらにその軍事力も誇るようになった。世界恐慌によってその技術力にも陰りが見えたが、第二次世界大戦以降は世界の2大超大国の一つになった。20世紀の後半は、政治、経済および軍事の分野でソビエト連邦との冷戦と競争の時代であったが、政府主導による科学技術の研究開発によって、宇宙工学、電子計算機およびバイオテクノロジーなどの分野で最先端を維持してきた。 科学技術と工業はアメリカの経済的成功を十分に形作っただけでなく、その明確な政治の仕組み、社会構造、教育制度および文化的な同一性の形成に貢献してきた。アメリカ的な能力主義社会、起業家精神、および自給自足といったことは初期の先駆的技術の進歩の遺産から出てきたものである。 (ja)
  • Технологическая и индустриальная история США описывает формирование наиболее мощной и технологически развитой страны мира. Быстрая индустриализация США в XIX веке стала возможной благодаря доступности земли и рабочей силы, климатическому разнообразию, наличию сети рек, каналов и морских побережий, удобных для транспортировки грузов, обилию природных ресурсов, облегчающих доступ к дешевой энергии, развитию транспорта и наличию капитала. В этом столетии на базе примитивной аграрной экономики развилась мощная промышленность, которая к середине XX века производила около трети всех промышленных товаров мира.Под влиянием технологических инноваций и развития транспорта в период до начала гражданской войны в США происходила первая промышленная революция, а после войны — и вторая. К началу XX века США уже превосходили европейские страны по экономическому развитию и наращивали свою армию и флот. Хотя в годы Великой депрессии технологическое развитие США замедлилось, из Второй мировой войны Америка вышла в качестве одной из двух мировых сверхдержав. Во второй половине XX века США успешно конкурировали с СССР за политическое, экономическое и военное доминирование, для чего американское правительство вкладывало значительные средства в развитие науки и технологий, добиваясь прогресса в космическом кораблестроении, компьютерных технологиях и биотехнологии. (ru)
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  • The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century (en)
  • La historia tecnológica e industrial de los Estados Unidos describe el surgimiento de Estados Unidos como la nación tecnológicamente más poderosa y avanzada del mundo. La disponibilidad de tierras y mano de obra, la diversidad de clima, la presencia abundante de canales navegables, ríos y vías fluviales costeras, y la abundancia de recursos naturales que facilitan la extracción de energía barata, el transporte rápido y la disponibilidad de capital contribuyeron a Estados Unidos la rápida industrialización. (es)
  • アメリカ合衆国の技術と産業の歴史について概説する。アメリカ合衆国が急速な工業化を果たしたのには、様々な要因、条件が貢献しており、例えば、広大な土地と労働力、気候の多様性、航行可能な運河・川・海岸水路の多様で豊富な存在、安価なエネルギーを得ることを可能とする豊かな天然資源、迅速な輸送力および資本力が挙げられる。多くの歴史家に拠れば、経済と技術が大きく発展したのは18世紀の終わりから20世紀初頭の間に起こったということで一致している。この期間、国全体が原始的な農業経済から世界の工業生産の3分の1以上を生み出すような最大の工業国にした。このことを総工業生産量の指数で表示すると、1790年の4.29に対し1913年の1975(1850年の総生産量を100とした)と実に460倍の成長となっていることからも明らかである。科学技術と工業はアメリカの経済的成功を十分に形作っただけでなく、その明確な政治の仕組み、社会構造、教育制度および文化的な同一性の形成に貢献してきた。アメリカ的な能力主義社会、起業家精神、および自給自足といったことは初期の先駆的技術の進歩の遺産から出てきたものである。 (ja)
  • Технологическая и индустриальная история США описывает формирование наиболее мощной и технологически развитой страны мира. Быстрая индустриализация США в XIX веке стала возможной благодаря доступности земли и рабочей силы, климатическому разнообразию, наличию сети рек, каналов и морских побережий, удобных для транспортировки грузов, обилию природных ресурсов, облегчающих доступ к дешевой энергии, развитию транспорта и наличию капитала. (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Technological and industrial history of the United States (en)
  • Historia tecnológica e industrial de Estados Unidos (es)
  • アメリカ合衆国の技術と産業の歴史 (ja)
  • Технологическая и индустриальная история США (ru)
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