An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry. Synthetic membranes have been successfully used for small and large-scale industrial processes since the middle of twentieth century. A wide variety of synthetic membranes is known. They can be produced from organic materials such as polymers and liquids, as well as inorganic materials. The most of commercially utilized synthetic membranes in separation industry are made of polymeric structures. They can be classified based on their surface chemistry, bulk structure, morphology, and production method. The chemical and physical properties of synthetic membranes and separated particles as well as a choice of driving force define a

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  • An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry. Synthetic membranes have been successfully used for small and large-scale industrial processes since the middle of twentieth century. A wide variety of synthetic membranes is known. They can be produced from organic materials such as polymers and liquids, as well as inorganic materials. The most of commercially utilized synthetic membranes in separation industry are made of polymeric structures. They can be classified based on their surface chemistry, bulk structure, morphology, and production method. The chemical and physical properties of synthetic membranes and separated particles as well as a choice of driving force define a particular membrane separation process. The most commonly used driving forces of a membrane process in industry are pressure and concentration gradients. The respective membrane process is therefore known as filtration. Synthetic membranes utilized in a separation process can be of different geometry and of respective flow configuration. They can also be categorized based on their application and separation regime. The best known synthetic membrane separation processes include water purification, reverse osmosis, dehydrogenation of natural gas, removal of cell particles by microfiltration and ultrafiltration, removal of microorganisms from dairy products, and Dialysis. (en)
  • Una membrana artificiale, anche chiamata membrana sintetica, è una membrana preparata per la separazione di elementi in laboratorio e nell'industria. La sua parte attiva, che permette il trasporto selettivo del materiale, consiste solitamente di polimeri (ad esempio polisulfone, polietersulfone, acetato di cellulosa, poliammide, o poliacrilonitrile) o materiale inorganico (ad esempio allumina, vetro borosilicato, o acciaio al zirconio). Una membrana potrebbe contenere parti ausiliarie per il supporto meccanico, il drenaggio, rattoppo, ecc.Rispetto alla comune filtrazione, la filtrazione a membrana permette di trattenere particelle di dimensioni molto minori (ad esempio batteri, molecole, e ioni). (it)
  • Une membrane synthétique est une membrane agissant comme un filtre dans des procédés industriels ou des expériences biochimiques. (fr)
  • Искусственная мембрана обычно представляет собой жесткую селективно-проницаемую перегородку, разделяющую массообменный аппарат на две рабочие зоны, в которых поддерживаются различные давления и составы разделяемой смеси. Мембраны могут быть выполнены в виде плоских листов, труб, капилляров и полых волокон. Мембраны выстраиваются в мембранные системы. Наиболее распространенные искусственные мембраны — полимерные электролитические мембраны. При определённых условиях, преимущественно могут быть использованы керамические мембраны. Некоторые мембраны работают в широком диапазоне мембранных операций, таких, как микрофильтрация, ультрафильтрация, обратный осмос, первапорация, сепарация газа, диализ или хроматография. Способ применения зависит от типа функциональности включеной в мембрану, которые могут быть основаны на изоляции по размеру, химическом родстве или электростатике. (ru)
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  • Una membrana artificiale, anche chiamata membrana sintetica, è una membrana preparata per la separazione di elementi in laboratorio e nell'industria. La sua parte attiva, che permette il trasporto selettivo del materiale, consiste solitamente di polimeri (ad esempio polisulfone, polietersulfone, acetato di cellulosa, poliammide, o poliacrilonitrile) o materiale inorganico (ad esempio allumina, vetro borosilicato, o acciaio al zirconio). Una membrana potrebbe contenere parti ausiliarie per il supporto meccanico, il drenaggio, rattoppo, ecc.Rispetto alla comune filtrazione, la filtrazione a membrana permette di trattenere particelle di dimensioni molto minori (ad esempio batteri, molecole, e ioni). (it)
  • Une membrane synthétique est une membrane agissant comme un filtre dans des procédés industriels ou des expériences biochimiques. (fr)
  • An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry. Synthetic membranes have been successfully used for small and large-scale industrial processes since the middle of twentieth century. A wide variety of synthetic membranes is known. They can be produced from organic materials such as polymers and liquids, as well as inorganic materials. The most of commercially utilized synthetic membranes in separation industry are made of polymeric structures. They can be classified based on their surface chemistry, bulk structure, morphology, and production method. The chemical and physical properties of synthetic membranes and separated particles as well as a choice of driving force define a (en)
  • Искусственная мембрана обычно представляет собой жесткую селективно-проницаемую перегородку, разделяющую массообменный аппарат на две рабочие зоны, в которых поддерживаются различные давления и составы разделяемой смеси. Мембраны могут быть выполнены в виде плоских листов, труб, капилляров и полых волокон. Мембраны выстраиваются в мембранные системы. Наиболее распространенные искусственные мембраны — полимерные электролитические мембраны. При определённых условиях, преимущественно могут быть использованы керамические мембраны. (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Synthetic membrane (en)
  • Membrana artificiale (it)
  • Membrane synthétique (fr)
  • Искусственная мембрана (ru)
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