The Ottoman Empire developed over the centuries a complex organization of government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler of a centralized government that had an effective control of its provinces, officials and inhabitants. Wealth and rank could be inherited but were just as often earned. Positions were perceived as titles such as viziers and aghas. Military service was a key to advancement in the hierarchy.

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  • The Ottoman Empire developed over the centuries a complex organization of government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler of a centralized government that had an effective control of its provinces, officials and inhabitants. Wealth and rank could be inherited but were just as often earned. Positions were perceived as titles such as viziers and aghas. Military service was a key to advancement in the hierarchy. The expansion of the Empire called for a systematic administrative organization that developed into a dual system of military ("Central Government") and civil administration ("Provincial System") developed a kind of separation of powers with most higher executive functions carried out by the military authorities and judicial and basic administration carried out by civil authorities. Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states. Most of the areas ruled by the Ottomans were explicitly mentioned in the official full style of the sultan, including various lofty titles adopted to emphasize imperial rank and show the empire as being "successor-in-law" to conquered states. The empire was divided into vilayets, with a governor assigned to each vilayet. The idea of vilayet originated from the Seljuk vassal state (Uç Beyliği) in central Anatolia. Over the years the Empire became an amalgamation of pre-existing polities, the Anatolian beyliks, brought under the sway of the ruling House of Osman. (en)
  • أتبع العثمانيون تنظيمًا بسيطًا لدولتهم، حيث ابتكروا جهازين إداريين للحكم: جهاز إداري مركزي وجهاز إداري محلي، وكان يتم اتباع هرميّة معينة في كل جهاز منها، وكان السلطان بوصفه حاكم البلاد، وخليفة المسلمين، يقبع على قمّة هذا الهرم. أخذ العثمانيون بالكثير من العادات العربية والفارسية والبيزنطية في تنظيمهم للأجهزة الإدارية، ودمجوا معها بعض العادات التركية القديمة، وصهروها كلها في بوتقة واحدة مميزة، مما جعل الدولة العثمانية تظهر بمظهر الوريث الشرعي لجميع تلك الحضارات التي سبقتها. (ar)
  • L’Empire ottoman a développé au cours des siècles une organisation d’État reposant sur un gouvernement très centralisé avec le sultan comme dirigeant suprême, tant civil que militaire et religieux ("Commandeur des croyants"), qui exerçait un contrôle effectif sur les provinces, les sujets et les fonctionnaires. Comme son prédécesseur l'Empire byzantin, l’Empire ottoman n'avait pas de titres héréditaires, mais des offices révocables par le sultan, tels que les vizirs, pachas et ağas. La richesse et la position sociale n’étaient pas reçues en héritage, mais pouvaient être acquises par la reconnaissance des mérites. Le service militaire était un élément clé de l’avancement dans la hiérarchie. (fr)
  • 多個世紀以來,奧斯曼帝國發展出先進的國家機關,即奧斯曼帝國國家機關(土耳其語:Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Teşkilatı)。奧斯曼帝國有一個高度中央集權的政府,以蘇丹為最高統治者,能有效地管治地方、人民及官員,維奇爾及阿加是官員的職稱。軍事是維繫等級制度的重要一環。 (zh)
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  • أتبع العثمانيون تنظيمًا بسيطًا لدولتهم، حيث ابتكروا جهازين إداريين للحكم: جهاز إداري مركزي وجهاز إداري محلي، وكان يتم اتباع هرميّة معينة في كل جهاز منها، وكان السلطان بوصفه حاكم البلاد، وخليفة المسلمين، يقبع على قمّة هذا الهرم. أخذ العثمانيون بالكثير من العادات العربية والفارسية والبيزنطية في تنظيمهم للأجهزة الإدارية، ودمجوا معها بعض العادات التركية القديمة، وصهروها كلها في بوتقة واحدة مميزة، مما جعل الدولة العثمانية تظهر بمظهر الوريث الشرعي لجميع تلك الحضارات التي سبقتها. (ar)
  • L’Empire ottoman a développé au cours des siècles une organisation d’État reposant sur un gouvernement très centralisé avec le sultan comme dirigeant suprême, tant civil que militaire et religieux ("Commandeur des croyants"), qui exerçait un contrôle effectif sur les provinces, les sujets et les fonctionnaires. Comme son prédécesseur l'Empire byzantin, l’Empire ottoman n'avait pas de titres héréditaires, mais des offices révocables par le sultan, tels que les vizirs, pachas et ağas. La richesse et la position sociale n’étaient pas reçues en héritage, mais pouvaient être acquises par la reconnaissance des mérites. Le service militaire était un élément clé de l’avancement dans la hiérarchie. (fr)
  • 多個世紀以來,奧斯曼帝國發展出先進的國家機關,即奧斯曼帝國國家機關(土耳其語:Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Teşkilatı)。奧斯曼帝國有一個高度中央集權的政府,以蘇丹為最高統治者,能有效地管治地方、人民及官員,維奇爾及阿加是官員的職稱。軍事是維繫等級制度的重要一環。 (zh)
  • The Ottoman Empire developed over the centuries a complex organization of government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler of a centralized government that had an effective control of its provinces, officials and inhabitants. Wealth and rank could be inherited but were just as often earned. Positions were perceived as titles such as viziers and aghas. Military service was a key to advancement in the hierarchy. (en)
rdfs:label
  • State organisation of the Ottoman Empire (en)
  • التنظيم الإداري في الدولة العثمانية (ar)
  • Organisation de l'Empire ottoman (fr)
  • 奧斯曼帝國國家機關 (zh)
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