The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Levante.

PropertyValue
dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Rewolucja hiszpańska 1936 roku – przemiany ekonomiczne i społeczne, w republikańskiej części Hiszpanii w czasie hiszpańskiej wojny domowej. Znaczna część gospodarki tej strefy znalazła się pod kontrolą robotników; w bastionach anarchizmu takich jak Katalonia odsetek ten wynosił do 75%, niższy był tam, gdzie znaczne wpływy posiadali komuniści. Fabrykami zarządzały komitety robotników, natomiast obszary rolnicze skolektywizowano w mniejszym lub większym stopniu, w niektórych miejscach łącząc je z wcześniejszą administracją gminną, tworząc komuny (samorządne gminy).
  • La révolution sociale espagnole de 1936 (revolución social española de 1936), couramment désignée sous le nom de révolution espagnole (revolución española), englobe tous les événements de type révolutionnaire déclenchés en Espagne, durant la guerre civile, en réponse à la tentative de coup d'Etat militaire les 17 et 18 juillet 1936. Les principaux représentants de ces mouvements étaient la CNT/AIT, la FAI, le POUM, ainsi que les ailes radicales du PSOE et de l'UGT. Les bases idéologiques de cette révolution se rattachent très clairement à l'anarcho-syndicalisme et au communisme libertaire, extrêmement puissant en Espagne dans les années 1930, mais aussi en partie au marxisme révolutionnaire. Les idées reposaient en grande partie sur : une très forte décentralisation, appelée « cantonalisme » en Espagne, dans le domaine administratif ; la collectivisation et l'autogestion dans le domaine économique ; le libéralisme dans les domaines moraux et sociaux ; un anticléricalisme virulent dans le domaine religieux ; le rationalisme dans le domaine éducatif.
  • La revolución social española de 1936, comúnmente conocida como revolución española comenzó tras el intento de golpe de Estado del 17 de julio de 1936, que desembocó en la Guerra Civil Española. Su principal base ideológica fue el anarcosindicalismo y el comunismo libertario, con un componente marxista revolucionario, caracterizado por el POUM, la CNT/AIT y el ala izquierda radical del PSOE y UGT, y se caracterizó, entre otras cosas: por su anticlericalismo en lo religioso, su cantonalismo en lo administrativo, su racionalismo en la educación, asamblearismo, avances en las libertades civiles, y el colectivismo autogestionario en lo económico.
  • A Revolução Espanhola foi o conjunto de mudanças econômicas e sociais que ocorreram nas cidades e povoados durante a guerra civil espanhola, majoritariamente, nas regiões controladas pelos sindicalistas revolucionários da CNT/AIT e pelos anarquistas - FAI, especialmente na Catalunha e Aragão. Nessas regiões, a maior parte da economia industrial e agrária foi coletivizada e administrada em regime de autogestão pelos trabalhadores, o desemprego abolido, os salários igualados, e em alguns lugares o dinheiro e a propriedade privada foram abolidos em favor de todos.
  • För revolutionen som utbröt 1868, se spanska revolutionen (1868), för revolutionen som utbröt 1820, se spanska revolutionen (1820). Spanska revolutionen var en social revolution som bröt ut 1936 i början av spanska inbördeskriget. Fascisterna, med Francisco Franco som ledare, hade tagit makten över ungefär halva Spanien. Det var på den andra sidan, den republikanska, som samhällsrevolutionen ägde rum. Stora delar av den republikanska sidan av Spaniens ekonomi socialiserades, vilket konkret innebar att arbetarna tog över sina arbetsplatser, jorden kollektiviserades och samhället inrättades efter frihetligt socialistiska principer. Det har uppskattats att över 10 miljoner människor deltog i revolutionen.
  • Испанская революция была социальной революцией трудящихся. Она началась сразу после начала Гражданской войны в 1936 м году, и привела к широкому внедрению анархистских и общесоциалистических организационных принципов в разных частях страны, оставшейся под контролем республиканского лагеря в течение двух-трех лет: прежде всего в Каталонии, Арагоне, Андалусии и части Леванта. Значительная часть республиканской экономики оказалась под рабочим контролем. В районах, контролировавшихся анархо-синдикалистами, таких, как Каталония, данный показатель превышал 75 %; в то же время в тех районах, где пользовалась влиянием компартия Испании, данный процент был ниже, поскольку правительство СССР и руководства Коминтерна активно препятствовали процессу развития коллективизации (и других социалистических и коммунистических преобразований), считая, что Испания не готова к подобным переменам. Заводы и фабрики находились под управлением рабочих комитетов, а в сельской местности создавались коллективные (коллективизированные) сельскохозяйственные либертарные коммуны. Коллективизировались в том числе отели, парикмахерские и рестораны, и управлялись самими трудящимися данных заведений. По оценкам исследователя Сэма Долгоффа прямо или косвенно в революционных преобразованиях участвовало до 8 миллионов человек, которые, как он утверждает «ближе всего подошли к реализации идеалов свободного безгосударственного общества в широком масштабе, нежели какая либо ещё революция в истории». При этом он ссылается на данный французского анархистского историка Гастона Леваля (непосредственного участника событий), обобщая анархистскую концепцию социальной революции. Коллективизация проводилась в первую очередь рядовыми членами НКТ и ФАИ. Кроме того в процессе коллективизации принимали участие и члены социалистического ВСТ, хотя и далеко не все члены данного профсоюзного объединения.
  • The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Levante. Much of Spain's economy was put under worker control; in anarchist strongholds like Catalonia, the figure was as high as 75%, but lower in areas with heavy Communist Party influence, as the Soviet Union-controlled party actively tried to crush attempts at worker empowerment. Factories were run through worker committees, agrarian areas became collectivised and run as libertarian communes. Even places like hotels, barber shops, and restaurants were collectivized and managed by their workers. Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or at least indirectly in the Spanish Revolution, which he claimed "came closer to realizing the ideal of the free stateless society on a vast scale than any other revolution in history. " Dolgoff quotes the French anarchist historian Gaston Leval (who was an active participant) to summarize the anarchist conception of the social revolution: In Spain during almost three years, despite a civil war that took a million lives, despite the opposition of the political parties (republicans, left and right Catalan separatists, socialists, Communists, Basque and Valencian regionalists, petty bourgeoisie, etc. ), this idea of libertarian communism was put into effect. Very quickly more than 60% of the land was collectively cultivated by the peasants themselves, without landlords, without bosses, and without instituting capitalist competition to spur production. In almost all the industries, factories, mills, workshops, transportation services, public services, and utilities, the rank and file workers, their revolutionary committees, and their syndicates reorganized and administered production, distribution, and public services without capitalists, high salaried managers, or the authority of the state. Even more: the various agrarian and industrial collectives immediately instituted economic equality in accordance with the essential principle of communism, 'From each according to his ability and to each according to his needs. ' They coordinated their efforts through free association in whole regions, created new wealth, increased production (especially in agriculture), built more schools, and bettered public services. They instituted not bourgeois formal democracy but genuine grass roots functional libertarian democracy, where each individual participated directly in the revolutionary reorganization of social life. They replaced the war between men, 'survival of the fittest,' by the universal practice of mutual aid, and replaced rivalry by the principle of solidarity.... This experience, in which about eight million people directly or indirectly participated, opened a new way of life to those who sought an alternative to anti-social capitalism on the one hand, and totalitarian state bogus socialism on the other. The collectivization effort was primarily orchestrated by the rank-and-file members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and the Federación Anarquista Ibérica, with the two often abbreviated as CNT-FAI due to the affinity between the two organizations and the major role of the latter within the former in maintaining anarchist "purity. " The non-anarchist socialist Unión General de Trabajadores also participated in the implementation of collectivization, albeit to a far lesser degree.
  • La rivoluzione spagnola del 1936-1937 fu una rivoluzione sociale, che cominciò durante le prime fasi della guerra civile spagnola, seguita al golpe fascista di Francisco Franco del luglio 1936 contro il governo repubblicano del Fronte Popolare (Spagna) e terminò nel maggio 1937. Si tratta probabilmente della più importante esperienza libertaria di massa nella storia, dato che un ruolo politico e militare preponderante rispetto alle altre forze antifasciste (socialiste riformiste e rivoluzionarie, repubblicane) fu ricoperto dalla Federazione Anarchica Iberica e dall'organizzazione sindacale C.N.T. Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, che arriverà ad avere un milione e mezzo di lavoratori iscritti http://es. wikipedia. org/wiki/Archivo:Cnt_afiliats. png. L'aspetto militare nel quadro internazionale è stato sempre maggiormente messo in evidenza, ma se si parla di rivoluzione sociale, e non solo di guerra civile spagnola, è soprattutto perché la maggior parte dell'economia spagnola fu messa sotto il controllo dei lavoratori; nelle "roccaforti" anarchiche, come la Catalogna, la percentuale raggiungeva il 75%, ma era più bassa in aree con forte influenza comunista. Le fabbriche erano gestite tramite comitati di lavoratori, le aree agricole furono collettivizzate in parte e gestite come comunità libere. La questione agraria trovò così rapida soluzione con l'azione diretta dopo le deludenti e timide riforme del governo repubblicano. La proprietà agricola individuale fu affrontata secondo criteri differenziati e non fu sistematicamente abolita. Ad esempio al congresso delle collettività agricole aragonesi del 1937, iniziativa federalista libertaria fortemente osteggiata dalle forze governative centrali, si decise, fra le altre cose, che chiunque non volesse partecipare al sistema agricolo collettivizzato, poteva avere un terreno di proprietà individuale, a condizione che la sua dimensione non eccedesse quella che egli stesso poteva lavorare senza impiegare salariati. È stato stimato da Sam Dolgoff, autore de "I Collettivi Anarchici: autogestione dei lavoratori nella Rivoluzione Spagnola", che più di 10 milioni di persone parteciparono direttamente, o almeno indirettamente, nella rivoluzione spagnola. Anche nel settore del commercio, in alcuni casi, i taxi, gli alberghi, le barberie e i ristoranti furono collettivizzati e gestiti dagli stessi lavoratori. In diverse collettività o transazioni il denaro fu abolito o parzialmente sostituito da forme non monetarie di retribuzione o di contributo. Le relazioni sociali gerarchiche in genere subirono trasformazioni radicali o sperimentazioni innovative in senso egualitario e libertario, come notò per esperienza diretta George Orwell nel suo Omaggio alla Catalogna, a partire dalla messa in discussione dell'ideologia maschilsta del patriarcato e dal protagonismo attivo e organizzato delle donne in ogni aspetto della rivoluzionehttp://ita. anarchopedia. org/Mujeres_libres_%28gruppo%29. Sempre in direzione antiautoritaria, in campo educativo, oltre ad un vasto programma di alfabetizzazione, vennero portate avanti iniziative ispirate al famoso maestro e teorico di una "Scuola Moderna" Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia, fondate scuole razionaliste, in un paese dove l'educazione era prerogativa della Chiesa cattolica, ed anche montessoriane. La stessa organizzazione militare fu improntata in chiave antimilitarista ed orizzontale con la creazione di milizie e colonne come la famosa Colonna Buenaventura Durruti.
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageExternalLink
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageID
  • 88459 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageInLinkCount
  • 124 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageOutLinkCount
  • 106 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageRevisionID
  • 542317059 (xsd:integer)
dbpprop:goals
  • Elimination of all institutions of state power; worker control of industrial production; implementation of libertarian socialist economy; elimination of social influence from Catholic Church; international spread of revolution to neighboring regions.
dbpprop:hasPhotoCollection
dbpprop:methods
  • Work place collectivization; political assassination
dbpprop:partof
  • the Spanish Civil War
dbpprop:place
  • Various regions of Spainprimarily Madrid, Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Levante.
dbpprop:result
  • Suppressed after ten-month period.
dbpprop:title
  • Spanish Revolution
dcterms:subject
rdf:type
rdfs:comment
  • The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Levante.
  • La révolution sociale espagnole de 1936 (revolución social española de 1936), couramment désignée sous le nom de révolution espagnole (revolución española), englobe tous les événements de type révolutionnaire déclenchés en Espagne, durant la guerre civile, en réponse à la tentative de coup d'Etat militaire les 17 et 18 juillet 1936. Les principaux représentants de ces mouvements étaient la CNT/AIT, la FAI, le POUM, ainsi que les ailes radicales du PSOE et de l'UGT.
  • Rewolucja hiszpańska 1936 roku – przemiany ekonomiczne i społeczne, w republikańskiej części Hiszpanii w czasie hiszpańskiej wojny domowej. Znaczna część gospodarki tej strefy znalazła się pod kontrolą robotników; w bastionach anarchizmu takich jak Katalonia odsetek ten wynosił do 75%, niższy był tam, gdzie znaczne wpływy posiadali komuniści.
  • A Revolução Espanhola foi o conjunto de mudanças econômicas e sociais que ocorreram nas cidades e povoados durante a guerra civil espanhola, majoritariamente, nas regiões controladas pelos sindicalistas revolucionários da CNT/AIT e pelos anarquistas - FAI, especialmente na Catalunha e Aragão.
  • La revolución social española de 1936, comúnmente conocida como revolución española comenzó tras el intento de golpe de Estado del 17 de julio de 1936, que desembocó en la Guerra Civil Española.
  • Испанская революция была социальной революцией трудящихся. Она началась сразу после начала Гражданской войны в 1936 м году, и привела к широкому внедрению анархистских и общесоциалистических организационных принципов в разных частях страны, оставшейся под контролем республиканского лагеря в течение двух-трех лет: прежде всего в Каталонии, Арагоне, Андалусии и части Леванта. Значительная часть республиканской экономики оказалась под рабочим контролем.
  • För revolutionen som utbröt 1868, se spanska revolutionen (1868), för revolutionen som utbröt 1820, se spanska revolutionen (1820). Spanska revolutionen var en social revolution som bröt ut 1936 i början av spanska inbördeskriget. Fascisterna, med Francisco Franco som ledare, hade tagit makten över ungefär halva Spanien. Det var på den andra sidan, den republikanska, som samhällsrevolutionen ägde rum.
  • La rivoluzione spagnola del 1936-1937 fu una rivoluzione sociale, che cominciò durante le prime fasi della guerra civile spagnola, seguita al golpe fascista di Francisco Franco del luglio 1936 contro il governo repubblicano del Fronte Popolare (Spagna) e terminò nel maggio 1937.
rdfs:label
  • Spanish Revolution
  • Revolución social española de 1936
  • Révolution sociale espagnole de 1936
  • Rivoluzione spagnola
  • Rewolucja hiszpańska 1936 roku
  • Revolução Espanhola
  • Испанская революция
  • Spanska revolutionen
owl:sameAs
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom
foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
is dbpedia-owl:wikiPageRedirects of
is dbpprop:eventStart of
is owl:sameAs of
is foaf:primaryTopic of