Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (English /ˈvɪrkoʊ, ˈfɪrxoʊ/; German: [ˈvɪɐ̯çoː]; 13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine".

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dbo:abstract
  • Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (English /ˈvɪrkoʊ, ˈfɪrxoʊ/; German: [ˈvɪɐ̯çoː]; 13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine". Born and raised in Schievelbein (Świdwin) as an only child of a working-class family, he proved to be a brilliant student. Dissuaded by his weak voice, he abandoned his initial interest in theology and turned to medicine. With special military scholarship, he earned his medical degree from Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute (Humboldt University of Berlin) under the tutelage of Johannes Peter Müller. He worked at the Charité hospital under Robert Froriep, whom he eventually succeeded as the prosector. Although he failed to contain the 1847–1848 typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia, his report laid the foundation for public health in Germany, as well as his political and social activities. From it, he coined a well known aphorism: "Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale". He participated in the Revolution of 1848, which led to his expulsion from Charité the next year. He published a newspaper Die medicinische Reform (Medical Reform) during this period to disseminate his social and political ideas. He took the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy at the University of Würzburg in 1849. After five years, Charité invited him back to direct its newly built Institute for Pathology, and simultaneously becoming the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy and Physiology at Berlin University. The campus of Charité is now named Campus Virchow Klinikum. He cofounded the political party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, by which he was elected to the Prussian House of Representatives, and won a seat in the Reichstag. His opposition to Otto von Bismarck's financial policy resulted in an anecdotal "Sausage Duel" between the two. But he ardently supported Bismarck in his anti-Catholic campaigns, the social revolution he himself named as Kulturkampf ("culture struggle"). A prolific writer, his scientific writings alone exceeded 2,000 in number. Among his books, Cellular Pathology published in 1858 is regarded as the root of modern pathology. This work also popularised the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula ("All cells come from cells"); although his idea originated in 1855. He founded journals such as Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin (now Virchows Archiv), and Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (Journal of Ethnology). The latter is published by German Anthropological Association and the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory, the societies of which he also founded. Virchow was the first to precisely describe and give names of diseases such as leukemia, chordoma, ochronosis, embolism, and thrombosis. He coined scientific terms, chromatin, agenesis, parenchyma, osteoid, amyloid degeneration, and spina bifida. His description of the transmission cycle of a roundworm Trichinella spiralis established the importance of meat inspection, which was started in Berlin. He developed the first systematic method of autopsy involving surgery of all body parts and microscopic examination. A number of medical terms are named after him, including Virchow's node, Virchow–Robin spaces, Virchow–Seckel syndrome, and Virchow's triad. He was the first to use hair analysis in criminal investigation, and recognised its limitations. His laborious analyses of the hair, skin, and eye colour of school children made him criticise the Aryan race concept as a myth. He was an ardent anti-evolutionist. He referred to Charles Darwin as an "ignoramus" and his own student Ernst Haeckel, the leading advocate of Darwinism in Germany, as a "fool". He discredited the original specimen of Neanderthal man as nothing but that of a deformed human, and not an ancestral species. He was an agnostic. In 1861, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1892, he was awarded the Copley Medal of the British Royal Society. He was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1873, and entitled an ennoblement "von Virchow", but which he declined. (en)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow [ˈfirçoː], [ˈvirçoː] (* 13. Oktober 1821 in Schivelbein, Provinz Pommern; † 5. September 1902 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Pathologe und Prähistoriker. In Würzburg und Berlin erlangte er Weltruf. Als Politiker der Deutschen Fortschrittspartei und der Deutschen Freisinnigen Partei stand er in höchstem Ansehen. Er begründete die moderne Pathologie und vertrat eine so naturwissenschaftlich wie sozial orientierte Medizin. (de)
  • 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها. (مارس 2016) رودولف كارل فيرشو (13 أكتوبر 1821 – 5 سبتمبر 1902) طبيب ألماني، أحيائي، أخصائي علم الأمراض، سياسي، صحة عمومية وأخصائي علم الإنسان. ويعتبر واحد من مؤسسين الطب الاجتماعي. * 32xبوابة أعلام * 32xبوابة الإمبراطورية الألمانية * 32xبوابة طبمشاريع شقيقة في كومنز صور وملفات عن: رودولف فيرشو 25بك هذه بذرة مقالة عن حياة شخصية بحاجة للتوسيع. شارك في تحريرها. (ar)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (13 de octubre de 1821, Schivelbein, Pomerania, Prusia - 5 de septiembre de 1902, Berlín) fue un médico y político alemán. A menudo es considerado "padre de la patología moderna" porque su trabajo ayudó a refutar la antigua creencia de humorismo. También es considerado uno de los fundadores de la medicina social y fue pionero del concepto moderno del proceso patológico al presentar su teoría celular, en la que explicaba los efectos de las enfermedades en los órganos y tejidos del cuerpo, enfatizando que las enfermedades surgen no en los órganos o tejidos en general, sino de forma primaria en células individuales. Asimismo, acuñó el término omnis cellula e cellula (toda célula proviene de otra célula). En 1861 fue elegido miembro extranjero de la Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences y en 1892 le fue concedida la Medalla Copleyde la Royal Society. Fue nominado al Premio Nobel de Medicina en tres ocasiones. Actualmente la Sociedad para la Antropología Médica Society for Medical Anthropology otorga el Premio Anual Rudolf Virchow (Rudolf Virchow Award). (es)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow, né le 13 octobre 1821 à Schivelbein (aujourd'hui Świdwin), en Poméranie – mort le 5 septembre 1902 à Berlin, est un médecin pathologiste et homme politique allemand, considéré comme l'un des fondateurs de l'anatomie pathologique moderne. Il effectua l'essentiel de sa carrière à l'hôpital de la Charité de Berlin, se faisant le promoteur d'une médecine strictement orientée vers les sciences naturelles. En tant qu'homme politique, il fut l'un des représentants du parti progressiste allemand. (fr)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (Schivelbein, 13 oktober 1821 – Berlijn, 5 september 1902) was een Duitse arts, volkenkundige (antropoloog en etnoloog) en politicus. (nl)
  • ルードルフ・ルートヴィヒ・カール・フィルヒョウ(Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow、発音[ˈvirço] / [ˈfirço]、1821年10月13日 - 1902年9月5日)はドイツ人の医師、病理学者、先史学者、生物学者、政治家。白血病の発見者として知られる。姓は「ウィルヒョー」「ヴィルヒョー」などと表記することもある。 (ja)
  • Pioniere dei moderni concetti della patologia cellulare e della patogenesi delle malattie, ha sottolineato che le malattie non sorgono da organi o tessuti in generale, ma nelle cellule. Portò le discipline dell'Igiene e della Medicina Sociale allo sviluppo attuale. Ha inoltre condotto, come consigliere comunale di Berlino, una lunga campagna di sensibilizzazione per le riforme sociali, l'igiene pubblica e ha contribuito allo sviluppo dell'antropologia come scienza moderna. Fu candidato nel 1902, poco dopo la sua morte, al premio Nobel, che però non gli fu conferito. (it)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (Świdwin, 13 de outubro de 1821 — Berlim, 5 de setembro de 1902) foi um médico e político polonês. É considerado o pai da patologia moderna e da medicina social, além de antropólogo e político liberal (Partido Progressista Alemão e Partido Livre-Pensador Alemão). Filho do açougueiro Carl Virchow e de Johanna Hesse Virchow, graduou-se em 1843 em medicina em Berlim, pela Academia Militar da Prússia. Tornou-se professor em 1847. Por participação ativa na Revolução de Março (1848-1849), mudou-se para Würzburg, onde trabalhou como anatomista. Casou em 1850 com Rose Mayer, com quem teve 3 filhos e 3 filhas. Em 1856 retornou a Berlim, para assumir a cátedra de anatomia patológica da Universidade de Berlim. Durante a Guerra Franco-Prussiana, liderou pessoalmente o primeiro hospital móvel para atender os soldados no front. Também envolveu-se em atividades sociais, como saneamento básico, arquitetura de construção hospitalar, melhoramento de técnicas de inspeção de carne e higiene escolar. A ele são creditadas várias descobertas significativas. Foi ele quem elucidou o mecanismo do tromboembolismo, cujos fatores são conhecidos até hoje como tríade de Virchow. Foi o primeiro a publicar um trabalho científico sobre leucemia, pelo qual todas as formas de lesão orgânica começam com alterações moleculares ou estruturais das células. Foi ele quem disse que as doenças eram uma mudança na célula. Foi membro ativo na vida política do II Reich alemão, como ferrenho opositor ao Chanceler Otto von Bismarck. Sua sepultura está localizada no Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof Berlin, no endereço Feld H, H-S-012/013, G2. (pt)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (ur. 13 października 1821 w Schivelbein, obecnie Świdwin, zm. 5 września 1902 w Berlinie) – niemiecki patolog, antropolog i higienista, w latach 1849-1902 profesor uniwersytetów w Würzburgu i Berlinie. (pl)
  • Ру́дольф Людвиг Карл Ви́рхов (нем. Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow; 13 октября 1821, Шифельбайн, Померания — 5 сентября 1902, Берлин) — немецкий учёный и политический деятель второй половины XIX столетия, врач, патологоанатом, гистолог, физиолог, один из основоположников клеточной теории в биологии и медицине, основоположник теории клеточной патологии в медицине; был известен также как археолог, антрополог и палеонтолог. (ru)
  • 鲁道夫·路德维希·卡尔·菲尔绍(Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow,1821年10月13日-1902年9月5日) 德国医生、人类学家、病理学家、史前学家、生物学家、作家、编辑和政治家。 (zh)
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  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow [ˈfirçoː], [ˈvirçoː] (* 13. Oktober 1821 in Schivelbein, Provinz Pommern; † 5. September 1902 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Pathologe und Prähistoriker. In Würzburg und Berlin erlangte er Weltruf. Als Politiker der Deutschen Fortschrittspartei und der Deutschen Freisinnigen Partei stand er in höchstem Ansehen. Er begründete die moderne Pathologie und vertrat eine so naturwissenschaftlich wie sozial orientierte Medizin. (de)
  • 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها. (مارس 2016) رودولف كارل فيرشو (13 أكتوبر 1821 – 5 سبتمبر 1902) طبيب ألماني، أحيائي، أخصائي علم الأمراض، سياسي، صحة عمومية وأخصائي علم الإنسان. ويعتبر واحد من مؤسسين الطب الاجتماعي. * 32xبوابة أعلام * 32xبوابة الإمبراطورية الألمانية * 32xبوابة طبمشاريع شقيقة في كومنز صور وملفات عن: رودولف فيرشو 25بك هذه بذرة مقالة عن حياة شخصية بحاجة للتوسيع. شارك في تحريرها. (ar)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow, né le 13 octobre 1821 à Schivelbein (aujourd'hui Świdwin), en Poméranie – mort le 5 septembre 1902 à Berlin, est un médecin pathologiste et homme politique allemand, considéré comme l'un des fondateurs de l'anatomie pathologique moderne. Il effectua l'essentiel de sa carrière à l'hôpital de la Charité de Berlin, se faisant le promoteur d'une médecine strictement orientée vers les sciences naturelles. En tant qu'homme politique, il fut l'un des représentants du parti progressiste allemand. (fr)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (Schivelbein, 13 oktober 1821 – Berlijn, 5 september 1902) was een Duitse arts, volkenkundige (antropoloog en etnoloog) en politicus. (nl)
  • ルードルフ・ルートヴィヒ・カール・フィルヒョウ(Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow、発音[ˈvirço] / [ˈfirço]、1821年10月13日 - 1902年9月5日)はドイツ人の医師、病理学者、先史学者、生物学者、政治家。白血病の発見者として知られる。姓は「ウィルヒョー」「ヴィルヒョー」などと表記することもある。 (ja)
  • Pioniere dei moderni concetti della patologia cellulare e della patogenesi delle malattie, ha sottolineato che le malattie non sorgono da organi o tessuti in generale, ma nelle cellule. Portò le discipline dell'Igiene e della Medicina Sociale allo sviluppo attuale. Ha inoltre condotto, come consigliere comunale di Berlino, una lunga campagna di sensibilizzazione per le riforme sociali, l'igiene pubblica e ha contribuito allo sviluppo dell'antropologia come scienza moderna. Fu candidato nel 1902, poco dopo la sua morte, al premio Nobel, che però non gli fu conferito. (it)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (ur. 13 października 1821 w Schivelbein, obecnie Świdwin, zm. 5 września 1902 w Berlinie) – niemiecki patolog, antropolog i higienista, w latach 1849-1902 profesor uniwersytetów w Würzburgu i Berlinie. (pl)
  • Ру́дольф Людвиг Карл Ви́рхов (нем. Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow; 13 октября 1821, Шифельбайн, Померания — 5 сентября 1902, Берлин) — немецкий учёный и политический деятель второй половины XIX столетия, врач, патологоанатом, гистолог, физиолог, один из основоположников клеточной теории в биологии и медицине, основоположник теории клеточной патологии в медицине; был известен также как археолог, антрополог и палеонтолог. (ru)
  • 鲁道夫·路德维希·卡尔·菲尔绍(Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow,1821年10月13日-1902年9月5日) 德国医生、人类学家、病理学家、史前学家、生物学家、作家、编辑和政治家。 (zh)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (English /ˈvɪrkoʊ, ˈfɪrxoʊ/; German: [ˈvɪɐ̯çoː]; 13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine". (en)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (13 de octubre de 1821, Schivelbein, Pomerania, Prusia - 5 de septiembre de 1902, Berlín) fue un médico y político alemán. A menudo es considerado "padre de la patología moderna" porque su trabajo ayudó a refutar la antigua creencia de humorismo. También es considerado uno de los fundadores de la medicina social y fue pionero del concepto moderno del proceso patológico al presentar su teoría celular, en la que explicaba los efectos de las enfermedades en los órganos y tejidos del cuerpo, enfatizando que las enfermedades surgen no en los órganos o tejidos en general, sino de forma primaria en células individuales. Asimismo, acuñó el término omnis cellula e cellula (toda célula proviene de otra célula). (es)
  • Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (Świdwin, 13 de outubro de 1821 — Berlim, 5 de setembro de 1902) foi um médico e político polonês. É considerado o pai da patologia moderna e da medicina social, além de antropólogo e político liberal (Partido Progressista Alemão e Partido Livre-Pensador Alemão). Durante a Guerra Franco-Prussiana, liderou pessoalmente o primeiro hospital móvel para atender os soldados no front. Também envolveu-se em atividades sociais, como saneamento básico, arquitetura de construção hospitalar, melhoramento de técnicas de inspeção de carne e higiene escolar. (pt)
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  • رودولف فيرشو (ar)
  • Rudolf Virchow (de)
  • Rudolf Virchow (es)
  • Rudolf Virchow (fr)
  • Rudolf Virchow (it)
  • ルドルフ・ルートヴィヒ・カール・フィルヒョウ (ja)
  • Rudolf Virchow (nl)
  • Rudolf Virchow (pl)
  • Rudolf Virchow (pt)
  • Вирхов, Рудольф (ru)
  • 鲁道夫·菲尔绍 (zh)
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