The Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity which attempt to answer the question of when gravitation produces singularities. A singularity in solutions of the Einstein field equations is one of two things: 1. * a situation where matter is forced to be compressed to a point (a space-like singularity) 2. * a situation where certain light rays come from a region with infinite curvature (a time-like singularity)

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• The Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity which attempt to answer the question of when gravitation produces singularities. A singularity in solutions of the Einstein field equations is one of two things: 1. * a situation where matter is forced to be compressed to a point (a space-like singularity) 2. * a situation where certain light rays come from a region with infinite curvature (a time-like singularity) Space-like singularities are a feature of non-rotating uncharged black-holes, while time-like singularities are those that occur in charged or rotating black hole exact solutions. Both of them have the property of geodesic incompleteness, in which either some light-path or some particle-path cannot be extended beyond a certain proper-time or affine-parameter (affine-parameter being the null analog of proper-time). The Penrose theorem guarantees that some sort of geodesic incompleteness occurs inside any black hole whenever matter satisfies reasonable energy conditions (It does not hold for matter described by a super-field, i.e., the Dirac field). The energy condition required for the black-hole singularity theorem is weak: it says that light rays are always focused together by gravity, never drawn apart, and this holds whenever the energy of matter is non-negative. Hawking's singularity theorem is for the whole universe, and works backwards in time: in Hawking's original formulation, it guaranteed that the Big Bang has infinite density. Hawking later revised his position in A Brief History of Time (1988) where he stated that "there was in fact no singularity at the beginning of the universe" (p50). This revision followed from quantum mechanics, in which general relativity must break down at times less than the Planck time. Hence general relativity cannot be used to show a singularity. Penrose's theorem is more restricted and only holds when matter obeys a stronger energy condition, called the dominant energy condition, in which the energy is larger than the pressure. All ordinary matter, with the exception of a vacuum expectation value of a scalar field, obeys this condition. During inflation, the universe violates the stronger dominant energy condition (but not the weak energy condition), and inflationary cosmologies avoid the initial big-bang singularity. However, inflationary cosmologies are still past-incomplete, and require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime. It is still an open question whether time-like singularities ever occur in the interior of real charged or rotating black holes, or whether they are artifacts of high symmetry and turn into spacelike singularities when realistic perturbations are added. (en)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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• The Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity which attempt to answer the question of when gravitation produces singularities. A singularity in solutions of the Einstein field equations is one of two things: 1. * a situation where matter is forced to be compressed to a point (a space-like singularity) 2. * a situation where certain light rays come from a region with infinite curvature (a time-like singularity) (en)
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• Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems (en)
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