Palula (also spelled Phalura, Palola, Phalulo, and also known as Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) or Dangarikwar, the name used by Khowar speakers), is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well as in the village Puri (also Purigal) in the Shishi valley, and at least by a portion of the population in the village Kalkatak, in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. A related variety of this language is spoken in the village Sau in Afghanistan, and another closely related variety in the village Khalkot in Dir District. Palula is pronounced as /paaluulaá/, with three long vowels and a rising pitch on the final syllable.

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dbo:abstract
  • Palula (also spelled Phalura, Palola, Phalulo, and also known as Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) or Dangarikwar, the name used by Khowar speakers), is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well as in the village Puri (also Purigal) in the Shishi valley, and at least by a portion of the population in the village Kalkatak, in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. A related variety of this language is spoken in the village Sau in Afghanistan, and another closely related variety in the village Khalkot in Dir District. Palula is pronounced as /paaluulaá/, with three long vowels and a rising pitch on the final syllable. The people of Ashret are important because they are strategically located at the main gate to Chitral. All persons entering Chitral through Lowari Top, the 10,230 feet (3,120 m) high pass which connects Chitral to Dir and the rest of Pakistan, must pass the customs checkpost at Ashret. The area where Palula is spoken includes 35°28′N 71°53′E / 35.467°N 71.883°E Tradition has it that the people of Ashret are originally from Chilas in the Indus River Valley in Pakistan. The Mehtar or ruler of Chitral appointed them as the guardians of the gate to Chitral at Ashret. The tradition that the people of Ashret originally come from Chilas is supported by locally recorded genealogies as well as independent historical records, from Chitral as well as the Indus valley. There is an unknown date to this story, but it appears to have happened 250–500 years ago. The present people of Chilas speak the related Shina language. Any connection they may have with the people of Ashret has been lost. The Palula language has been documented by George Morgenstierne (1926, 1941), Kendall Decker (1992), Henrik Liljegren (2008, 2009, 2010), and Henrik Liljegren & Naseem Haider (2009, 2011). It is classified as a Dardic Language but this is more of a geographical classification than a linguistic one. In some of the smaller villages, Palula has either ceased to be spoken (in the village Ghos, situated near Drosh) or its speakers are largely shifting (as in Puri and Kalkatak) to the more widely spoken Khowar language. However, in the main Palula settlements in the Biori and Ashret valleys, it is a strong, vibrant and growing language, as the population in those areas increases, and it is still with a few exceptions the mother tongue of almost all people. In 2004, Anjuman-e-taraqqi-e-Palula, the Society for the promotion of Palula, was founded by people in the Palula community to promote the continued use of their language and to encourage research and documentation of their language, history and culture. After the establishment of a written form of the language, the society is now engaged in producing literature and educational material in Palula. In 2006, Palula Alifbe (Palula alphabet book) and Palula Shiluka (Palula stories) were jointly published by the Anjuman-e-taraqqi-e-Palula and the Frontier Language Institute in Peshawar. In 2008, a mother-tongue based educational programme was launched by a local school management committee in Ashret and a first batch of Palula children could start learning to read and write in their own language. Since 2010, two schools operate within this programme in Ashret, using a curriculum developed by the community itself with assistance from the Forum for Language Initiatives (a regional language resource centre based in Islamabad). The Norwegian Linguist Georg Morgenstierne has claimed that Chitral is the area with the greatest linguistic diversity in the world, but many of the languages spoken in the area are in fact related as descendants of Proto-Indo-European. Although Khowar is the predominant language of Chitral, more than ten other languages are spoken here. These include Kalasha-mun, Palula, Dameli, Gawar-Bati, Nuristani, Yidgha, Burushaski, Gujar, Wakhi, Kyrgyz, Persian and Pashto. Since many of these languages have no written form, letters are usually written in Urdu or Persian. (en)
  • Le phalura (ou phalulo) est une langue indo-aryenne du sous-groupe des langues dardiques, parlée dans les montagnes du Nord du Pakistan.Le phalura est parlé dans huit villages situés dans le sud du Chitrâl, par environ 8 600 personnes. Il subit une forte pression du khowar. (fr)
  • La lingua Phalura (anche chiamata Palula, Palola, Phalulo ed anche conosciuta come Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) o Dangarikwar nome usato dai locutori Khowar), appartiene alla Famiglia linguistica delle Lingue dardiche ed è parlata approssimativamente da 10000 persone, nelle valli dell'Ashret e del Biori soprattutto e poi nel villaggio di Puri (o Purigal) nella Shishi valley e da una parte degli abitanti del villaggio di Kalkatak, nel Distretto di Chitral della provincia del Khyber Pakhtunkhwa del Pakistan. Dialetti della lingua sono anche parlati nei villaggi di Khalkot Distretto di Dir (Pakistan) e di Sau in Afghanistan. Le popolazioni della valle dell'Ashret sono importanti perché sono posizionate in una zona di grande importanza strategica, all'ingresso del Chitral. Tutte le persone che arrivano a Chitral attraverso il Passo di Lowari (3120 m), l'alto passo che connette Chitral a Dir ed al resto del Pakistan, debbono passare la dogana ad Ashret. La tradizione vuole che le genti di Ashret siano originarie di Chilas nella valle dell'Indo, questa tradizione è supportata dai registri genealogici locali e da registri indipendenti, di Chitral e della valle dell'Indo. Le popolazioni che vivono attualmente nel Chilas parlano una lingua correlata, la Lingua shina. La lingua Palula è stata documentata dai linguisti Georg Morgenstierne (nel 1926 e 1941), Kendall Decker (1992), Henrik Liljegren (2008, 2009, 2010) e da Henrik Liljegren e Naseem Haider (2009, 2011). Viene classificata come lingua Dardica ma si tratta unicamente di una classificazione geografica più che linguistica. In molti dei piccoli villaggi, fuori dalle valli dell'Ashret e del Biori (dove la lingua è ancora Lingua madre per la quasi totalità delle persone), il Phalura ha cessato di essere parlato ed i suoi locutori, in larga parte, stanno passando alla lingua più parlata, nella zona, che è il Khowar. (it)
  • Пхалура — индоевропейский язык, относящийся к дардской ветви. (ru)
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  • Phalura
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  • No official status
dbp:notice
  • Indic
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  • e18
dbp:script
  • Palula alphabet , see other less-used writing systems below
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  • 10000 (xsd:integer)
  • The population of Ashret and Biori Valleys is almost completely monolingual
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • Le phalura (ou phalulo) est une langue indo-aryenne du sous-groupe des langues dardiques, parlée dans les montagnes du Nord du Pakistan.Le phalura est parlé dans huit villages situés dans le sud du Chitrâl, par environ 8 600 personnes. Il subit une forte pression du khowar. (fr)
  • Пхалура — индоевропейский язык, относящийся к дардской ветви. (ru)
  • Palula (also spelled Phalura, Palola, Phalulo, and also known as Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) or Dangarikwar, the name used by Khowar speakers), is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well as in the village Puri (also Purigal) in the Shishi valley, and at least by a portion of the population in the village Kalkatak, in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. A related variety of this language is spoken in the village Sau in Afghanistan, and another closely related variety in the village Khalkot in Dir District. Palula is pronounced as /paaluulaá/, with three long vowels and a rising pitch on the final syllable. (en)
  • La lingua Phalura (anche chiamata Palula, Palola, Phalulo ed anche conosciuta come Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) o Dangarikwar nome usato dai locutori Khowar), appartiene alla Famiglia linguistica delle Lingue dardiche ed è parlata approssimativamente da 10000 persone, nelle valli dell'Ashret e del Biori soprattutto e poi nel villaggio di Puri (o Purigal) nella Shishi valley e da una parte degli abitanti del villaggio di Kalkatak, nel Distretto di Chitral della provincia del Khyber Pakhtunkhwa del Pakistan. Dialetti della lingua sono anche parlati nei villaggi di Khalkot Distretto di Dir (Pakistan) e di Sau in Afghanistan. (it)
rdfs:label
  • Palula language (en)
  • Phalura (fr)
  • Lingua phalura (it)
  • Пхалура (ru)
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