Oswald Boelcke (German: [ˈbœlkə]; 19 May 1891 – 28 October 1916) was a German flying ace of the First World War and one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat. Boelcke is considered the father of the German fighter air force, as well as the "Father of Air Fighting Tactics". He was the first to formalize rules of air fighting, which he presented as the Dicta Boelcke. While he promulgated rules for the individual pilot, his main concern was the use of formation fighting rather than single effort.

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dbo:abstract
  • Oswald Boelcke (German: [ˈbœlkə]; 19 May 1891 – 28 October 1916) was a German flying ace of the First World War and one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat. Boelcke is considered the father of the German fighter air force, as well as the "Father of Air Fighting Tactics". He was the first to formalize rules of air fighting, which he presented as the Dicta Boelcke. While he promulgated rules for the individual pilot, his main concern was the use of formation fighting rather than single effort. The German flying ace Manfred von Richthofen (The Red Baron), had been taught by Boelcke and continued to idolize his late mentor long after he had surpassed Boelcke's tally of victories. (en)
  • Oswald Boelcke (* 19. Mai 1891 in Giebichenstein, Saalkreis; † 28. Oktober 1916 bei Bapaume, Pas-de-Calais, Frankreich) war einer der bekanntesten deutschen Jagdflieger im Ersten Weltkrieg. Er entwickelte mit den Dicta Boelcke die ersten Einsatzgrundsätze der Luftkampftaktik. (de)
  • Oswald Boelcke (Giebichstein, 19 de mayo de 1891 – Bapaume, Francia; 28 de octubre de 1916). Fue un piloto alemán durante la Primera Guerra Mundial y uno de los más influyentes líderes y estrategas de los primeros años del combate aéreo. Se le considera el padre de la fuerza aérea alemana. Fue el primero en formalizar las reglas del combate aéreo, que fueron recogidas en Dicta Boelcke. El gran as alemán, Manfred von Richthofen, fue instruido por Boelcke y continuó idolatrando a su mentor mucho después de haberle superado en victorias: “Después de todo sólo soy un piloto de combate pero Boeckle fue un héroe”. Manfred von Richthofen en 1917 Boelcke era hijo de un maestro de escuela que había vuelto hacía poco de Argentina. Su apellido se escribía originalmente Bölcke. Sin embargo, Oswald, junto con su hermano mayor Wilhelm, quitaron la diéresis y adoptaron el deletreo latino en lugar del alemán. La pronunciación es la misma. Después de dejar la escuela se alistó en el Telegraphen-Bataillon Nr. 3 en Coblenza como Fahnenjunker (oficial cadete). A mediados de 1914 fue transferido al Fliegertruppe. Su entrenamiento duró desde mayo hasta agosto de ese año en la Halberstädter Fliegerschule y posteriormente fue trasladado de manera inmediata al servicio activo. Boelcke fue asignado inicialmente a la Fliegerabteilung 13, luego destinado a la Fliegerabteilung 62 en abril de 1915, con base en Douai. El observador en el equipo de Boelcke derribó el primer avión el 4 de julio de 1915. Aquel mismo mes, Boelcke y Max Immelmann se convirtieron en los primeros pilotos de combate alemán, al proporcionárseles los dos primeros Fokker E.I, equipados con ametralladoras frontales de fuego sincronizado. Boelcke ganó su primer combate aéreo el 19 de agosto de 1915, derribando cuatro aviones enemigos más antes de que terminase el año y otros cuatro más en enero de 1916. Ese mismo mes, junto con Immelmann, fue el primer piloto alemán que recibió la medalla Pour le Mérite. Después de que Immelmann cayera en combate en junio de 1916, Boelcke se convirtió en el mejor as de aviación alemán. En marzo de 1916 fue nombrado jefe del recientemente formado Fliegerabteilung Sivery, que dirigió sobre Verdún. La fuerza aérea alemana, la Luftstreitkräfte, fue reorganizada a mediados de 1916 y Boelcke fue elegido como comandante del Jagdstaffel Nr 2, comúnmente llamada Jasta 2, en septiembre. Entre sus primeros elegidos se encontraban Manfred Von Richthofen, Erwin Böhme, Hans Reimann y Werner Voss. Inicialmente con el nuevo biplano Albatros D.II sobre Somme, Boelcke derribó once aviones del Royal Flying Corps en su primer mes con el Jasta 2. Su escuadrilla siempre volaba en una formación muy disciplinada y táctica. Boelcke murió cuando su Albatros D.II chocó con el de Böhme durante un dog fight con D.H. 2s del Escuadrón 24 de la RFC. Boelcke tiene 40 victorias en su haber. Böhme sobrevivió al impacto, pero el horror de lo sucedido casi le empujó al suicidio. En la moderna Luftwaffe, el Jagdbombergeschwader 31 lleva el nombre de Boelcke. (es)
  • Oswald Boelcke (Giebichstein, 19 mai 1891 - Bapaume, 28 octobre 1916) est un pilote allemand de la Première Guerre mondiale. As de l'aviation, il formule les premiers principes du combat aérien, plus connus sous le nom de Dicta Boelcke. (fr)
  • Fu un importante asso dell'aviazione tedesca e uno dei primi e più influenti tattici della caccia aerea. Boelcke fu considerato il padre dell'aviazione militare tedesca; fu il primo a formalizzare le regole del combattimento aereo, che chiamò Dicta Boelcke. Il suo più brillante allievo, Manfred von Richthofen, conservò sempre un ottimo ricordo del suo maestro. (it)
  • Oswald Boelcke (Giebichenstein (nu Halle (Saale)), 19 mei 1891 - bij Bapaume (Somme, Frankrijk), 28 oktober 1916) was een Duits gevechtspiloot tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog, en een invloedrijke tacticus van de eerste jaren van luchtgevechten. Boelcke wordt beschouwd als de vader van de Duitse jachtluchtmacht. Hij was de eerste die de tactieken en regels van luchtgevechten formaliseerde, en hij presenteerde die als de Dicta Boelcke. Hij was de leermeester van Manfred von Richthofen (De Rode Baron). (nl)
  • Oswald Boelcke (ur. 19 maja 1891; zm. 28 października 1916) – niemiecki lotnik, as myśliwski z okresu I wojny światowej. Uzyskał 40 zwycięstw powietrznych. Był organizatorem niemieckiego lotnictwa myśliwskiego i wniósł istotny wkład w rozwój taktyki myśliwców na świecie. (pl)
  • Oswald Boelcke (19 de maio de 1891 – 28 de outubro de 1916) foi um piloto alemão da Primeira Guerra Mundial e um dos mais influentes líderes e estrategistas dos primeiros anos de combate aéreo. É considerado o pai da Força Aérea Alemã. Foi o primeiro a formalizar as regras de combate aéreo, que foram apresentadas na Dicta Boelcke. O grande ás da aviação Manfred von Richthofen, foi ensinado por Boelcke, que continuou a idolatrar seu mentor mesmo depois de o ter superado em vitórias: Boelcke nasceu em Giebichenstein (atualmente Halle an der Saale), filho de um professor de escola que retornara havia pouco da Argentina. Seu sobrenome era escrito originalmente Bölcke, quando Oswald e seu irmão mais velho Wilhem retiraram o trema e optaram pela forma latina de escrita, mas a pronúncia é a mesma. (pt)
  • Освальд Бёльке (нем. Oswald Boelcke; 19 мая 1891, Гибихенштайн — 28 октября 1916, Бапом) — немецкий военный лётчик и тактик, автор основных правил воздушного боя Dicta Boelcke, один из первых асов в истории мировой авиации. (ru)
  • 奧斯華·波爾克(德语:Oswald Boelcke,1891年5月19日-1916年10月28日)是一名第一次世界大戰德國最早期的王牌飛行員,共擊落了40架敵機,是最有影響力的早期空戰戰術家和指揮官之一,他創建了德國第一支戰鬥機部隊──第2戰鬥機中隊(Jasta 2), 外号波爾克中隊(Jasta Boelcke),被稱為德國空軍戰鬥機之父,德國大多數早期的王牌飛行員出身於波爾克的第2戰鬥機中隊,日後名留青史的紅男爵曼弗雷德·馮·里希特霍芬亦在其中。同時波爾克亦被稱為空中戰術之父。他是第一個正式確立空戰法則的人,他提出波爾克戰術守則(Dicta Boelcke),被兩次世界大戰德國戰鬥機飛行員奉為圭臬,此戰術守則到現在仍然一直被世界各國戰鬥機飛行員引用。 被稱為王牌中的王牌"紅男爵曼弗雷德·馮·里希特霍芬"一直深受波爾克影響及教導,即使日後其擊落敵機戰績超過波爾克仍繼續崇拜他。 (zh)
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  • 1891-5-19
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  • 1916-10-28 (xsd:date)
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  • 1916-01-01 (xsd:date)
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  • 1911-01-01 (xsd:date)
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  • 1891-05-19 (xsd:date)
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  • Giebichenstein; near Halle (Saale)
dbp:caption
  • Oswald Boelcke in 1916 with the Pour le Mérite at his neck.
dbp:deathDate
  • 1916-10-28 (xsd:date)
dbp:deathPlace
  • Near Douai
dbp:id
  • Boelcke,+Oswald
dbp:name
  • Oswald Boelcke
dbp:quote
  • I am after all only a combat pilot, but Boelcke, he was a hero.
  • One day we were flying, once more guided by Boelcke against the enemy. We always had a wonderful feeling of security when he was with us. After all he was the one and only. The weather was very gusty and there were many clouds. There were no aeroplanes about except fighting ones. From a long distance we saw two impertinent Englishmen in the air who actually seemed to enjoy the terrible weather. We were six and they were two. If they had been twenty and if Boelcke had given us the signal to attack we should not have been at all surprised. The struggle began in the usual way. Boelcke tackled the one and I the other. I had to let go because one of the German machines got in my way. I looked around and noticed Boelcke settling his victim about two hundred yards away from me. It was the usual thing. Boelcke would shoot down his opponent and I had to look on. Close to Boelcke flew a good friend of his. It was an interesting struggle. Both men were shooting. It was probable that the Englishman would fall at any moment. Suddenly I noticed an unnatural movement of the two German flying machines. Immediately I thought: Collision. I had not yet seen a collision in the air. I had imagined that it would look quite different. In reality, what happened was not a collision. The two machines merely touched one another. However, if two machines go at the tremendous pace of flying machines, the slightest contact has the effect of a violent concussion. Boelcke drew away from his victim and descended in large curves. He did not seem to be falling, but when I saw him descending below me I noticed that part of his planes had broken off. I could not see what happened afterward, but in the clouds he lost an entire plane. Now his machine was no longer steerable. It fell accompanied all the time by Boelcke's faithful friend. When we reached home we found the report "Boelcke is dead!" had already arrived. We could scarcely realize it. The greatest pain was, of course, felt by the man who had the misfortune to be involved in the accident. It is a strange thing that everybody who met Boelcke imagined that he alone was his true friend. I have made the acquaintance of about forty men, each of whom imagined that he alone was Boelcke's intimate. Each imagined that he had the monopoly of Boelcke's affections. Men whose names were unknown to Boelcke believed that he was particularly fond of them. This is a curious phenomenon which I have never noticed in anyone else. Boelcke had not a personal enemy. He was equally polite to everybody, making no differences. The only one who was perhaps more intimate with him than the others was the very man who had the misfortune to be in the accident which caused his death.
  • Boelcke is no longer among us now. It could not have hit us pilots any harder. On Saturday afternoon we were sitting on stand-by alert in our aerodrome blockhouse. I had just begun a chess match with Boelcke—it was then, shortly after 4 o'clock during an infantry attack at the front, that we were called. As usual, Boelcke led us. It wasn't long before we were flying over Flers and started an attack on several English aeroplanes, fast single-seaters, which resisted efficiently. In the following wild turning-flight combat, which allowed us to take shots only in short bursts, we sought to force down our opponent by alternately cutting him off, as we had already done so often with success. Boelcke and I had the one Englishman evenly between us, when another opponent, hunted by our friend Richthofen, cut directly in our path. As fast as lightning, Boelcke and I took evasive action simultaneously, and for one instant our wings obstructed our view of each other—it was then it occurred. How I am to describe my feelings to you from that instant on, when Boelcke suddenly emerged a few meters on the right from me, his machine ducked, I pulled up hard, however nevertheless we still touched and we both fell towards the earth! It was only a slight touching, but at the enormous speed this still also meant it was an impact. Fate is usually so senseless in its selection: me, only one side of the undercarriage had torn away, him, the outermost piece of the left wing. After a few hundred meters I got my machine under control again and could now follow Boelcke's, which I could see was only somewhat downwardly inclined in a gentle glide, heading towards our lines. It was only in a cloud layer at lower regions that violent gusts caused his machine to gradually descended more steeply, and I had to watch as he could no longer set it down evenly, and saw it impact beside a battery position. People immediately hurried to his assistance. My attempts to land beside my friend were made impossible because of the shell craters and trenches. Thus I flew rapidly to our field. The fact that I had missed the landing, they told me of only the other day—I have no recollection of this at all. I was completely distressed, however I still had hope. But as we arrived in the car, they brought the body to us. He died in the blink of an eye at the moment of the crash. Boelcke never wore a crash helmet and did not strap himself in the Albatros either—otherwise he would have even survived the not at all too powerful of an impact. Now everything is so empty to us. Only little by little does it come fully to our consciousness, that within the gap which our Boelcke leaves, the soul of the total is missing. He was nevertheless in each relationship our leader and master. He had an irresistible influence on all, even on superiors, which had to do purely with his personality, the all naturalness of his being. He could take us everywhere. We never had the feeling that anything could fail if he were there, and almost everything succeeded as well. In these one and a half months he has been with us we have put over 60 hostile aeroplanes out-of-action and made the dominance of the Englishmen shrink from day to day. Now we all must see that his triumphant spirit does not sink in the Staffel. This afternoon the funeral service was in Cambrai, from where the parents and brothers escorted their hero for burying at the cemetery of honour in Dessau. His parents are magnificent people—courageously accepting the unalterable with all the pain they feel. This gives me some solace as well, but nothing can be taken away from the sorrow over the loss of this extraordinary human being.
dbp:rank
dbp:source
  • Manfred von Richthofen, The Red Battle Flyer
  • —Erwin Böhme, letter to fiancée
  • —Manfred von Richthofen, September 1917
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  • German First World War flying ace (en)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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rdfs:comment
  • Oswald Boelcke (* 19. Mai 1891 in Giebichenstein, Saalkreis; † 28. Oktober 1916 bei Bapaume, Pas-de-Calais, Frankreich) war einer der bekanntesten deutschen Jagdflieger im Ersten Weltkrieg. Er entwickelte mit den Dicta Boelcke die ersten Einsatzgrundsätze der Luftkampftaktik. (de)
  • Oswald Boelcke (Giebichstein, 19 mai 1891 - Bapaume, 28 octobre 1916) est un pilote allemand de la Première Guerre mondiale. As de l'aviation, il formule les premiers principes du combat aérien, plus connus sous le nom de Dicta Boelcke. (fr)
  • Fu un importante asso dell'aviazione tedesca e uno dei primi e più influenti tattici della caccia aerea. Boelcke fu considerato il padre dell'aviazione militare tedesca; fu il primo a formalizzare le regole del combattimento aereo, che chiamò Dicta Boelcke. Il suo più brillante allievo, Manfred von Richthofen, conservò sempre un ottimo ricordo del suo maestro. (it)
  • Oswald Boelcke (Giebichenstein (nu Halle (Saale)), 19 mei 1891 - bij Bapaume (Somme, Frankrijk), 28 oktober 1916) was een Duits gevechtspiloot tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog, en een invloedrijke tacticus van de eerste jaren van luchtgevechten. Boelcke wordt beschouwd als de vader van de Duitse jachtluchtmacht. Hij was de eerste die de tactieken en regels van luchtgevechten formaliseerde, en hij presenteerde die als de Dicta Boelcke. Hij was de leermeester van Manfred von Richthofen (De Rode Baron). (nl)
  • Oswald Boelcke (ur. 19 maja 1891; zm. 28 października 1916) – niemiecki lotnik, as myśliwski z okresu I wojny światowej. Uzyskał 40 zwycięstw powietrznych. Był organizatorem niemieckiego lotnictwa myśliwskiego i wniósł istotny wkład w rozwój taktyki myśliwców na świecie. (pl)
  • Освальд Бёльке (нем. Oswald Boelcke; 19 мая 1891, Гибихенштайн — 28 октября 1916, Бапом) — немецкий военный лётчик и тактик, автор основных правил воздушного боя Dicta Boelcke, один из первых асов в истории мировой авиации. (ru)
  • 奧斯華·波爾克(德语:Oswald Boelcke,1891年5月19日-1916年10月28日)是一名第一次世界大戰德國最早期的王牌飛行員,共擊落了40架敵機,是最有影響力的早期空戰戰術家和指揮官之一,他創建了德國第一支戰鬥機部隊──第2戰鬥機中隊(Jasta 2), 外号波爾克中隊(Jasta Boelcke),被稱為德國空軍戰鬥機之父,德國大多數早期的王牌飛行員出身於波爾克的第2戰鬥機中隊,日後名留青史的紅男爵曼弗雷德·馮·里希特霍芬亦在其中。同時波爾克亦被稱為空中戰術之父。他是第一個正式確立空戰法則的人,他提出波爾克戰術守則(Dicta Boelcke),被兩次世界大戰德國戰鬥機飛行員奉為圭臬,此戰術守則到現在仍然一直被世界各國戰鬥機飛行員引用。 被稱為王牌中的王牌"紅男爵曼弗雷德·馮·里希特霍芬"一直深受波爾克影響及教導,即使日後其擊落敵機戰績超過波爾克仍繼續崇拜他。 (zh)
  • Oswald Boelcke (German: [ˈbœlkə]; 19 May 1891 – 28 October 1916) was a German flying ace of the First World War and one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat. Boelcke is considered the father of the German fighter air force, as well as the "Father of Air Fighting Tactics". He was the first to formalize rules of air fighting, which he presented as the Dicta Boelcke. While he promulgated rules for the individual pilot, his main concern was the use of formation fighting rather than single effort. (en)
  • Oswald Boelcke (Giebichstein, 19 de mayo de 1891 – Bapaume, Francia; 28 de octubre de 1916). Fue un piloto alemán durante la Primera Guerra Mundial y uno de los más influyentes líderes y estrategas de los primeros años del combate aéreo. Se le considera el padre de la fuerza aérea alemana. Fue el primero en formalizar las reglas del combate aéreo, que fueron recogidas en Dicta Boelcke. El gran as alemán, Manfred von Richthofen, fue instruido por Boelcke y continuó idolatrando a su mentor mucho después de haberle superado en victorias: Manfred von Richthofen en 1917 (es)
  • Oswald Boelcke (19 de maio de 1891 – 28 de outubro de 1916) foi um piloto alemão da Primeira Guerra Mundial e um dos mais influentes líderes e estrategistas dos primeiros anos de combate aéreo. É considerado o pai da Força Aérea Alemã. Foi o primeiro a formalizar as regras de combate aéreo, que foram apresentadas na Dicta Boelcke. O grande ás da aviação Manfred von Richthofen, foi ensinado por Boelcke, que continuou a idolatrar seu mentor mesmo depois de o ter superado em vitórias: (pt)
rdfs:label
  • Oswald Boelcke (en)
  • Oswald Boelcke (de)
  • Oswald Boelcke (es)
  • Oswald Boelcke (fr)
  • Oswald Boelcke (it)
  • Oswald Boelcke (nl)
  • Oswald Boelcke (pl)
  • Oswald Boelcke (pt)
  • Бёльке, Освальд (ru)
  • 奧斯華·波爾克 (zh)
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