Social oppression is the socially supported mistreatment and exploitation of a group of individuals. Social oppression is based on power dynamics, and an individual’s social location in society. Social location, as defined by Lynn Weber, is “an individual’s or a group’s social ‘place’ in the race, class, gender and sexuality hierarchies, as well as in other critical social hierarchies such as age, ethnicity, and nation.” An individual’s social location determines how one will be perceived by others in the whole of society. It maintains three faces of power: the power to design or manipulate the rules, to win the game through force or competition, and the ability to write history.

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dbo:abstract
  • Social oppression is the socially supported mistreatment and exploitation of a group of individuals. Social oppression is based on power dynamics, and an individual’s social location in society. Social location, as defined by Lynn Weber, is “an individual’s or a group’s social ‘place’ in the race, class, gender and sexuality hierarchies, as well as in other critical social hierarchies such as age, ethnicity, and nation.” An individual’s social location determines how one will be perceived by others in the whole of society. It maintains three faces of power: the power to design or manipulate the rules, to win the game through force or competition, and the ability to write history. Many political theorists, including Weber, argue that oppression persists because most individuals fail to recognize it; that is, discrimination is often not visible to those who are not in the midst of it. These inequalities further perpetuate themselves because those oppressed rarely have access to resources that would allow them to escape their maltreatment. This can lead to internalized oppression, in which subordinate groups essentially give up the fight to access equality and accept their fate as a non-dominant group. Social oppression can be inflicted on both a macro and a micro level. The macro level focuses on institutionalized oppression, and how individuals within the dominant group are able to apply their resources so that they continue to remain in power. There are many institutionalized barriers that stand in the way of subjugated groups for progressive movements to overcome. Examples of social oppression on the macro level are the vast differences that occur in education systems, healthcare policies, and adherence to the law. On a micro level, we look at interpersonal interactions that occur in daily lives. Our perceptions of people shape these conversations as the result of stereotypes and believed social norms. Stereotypical images of African American individuals have persisted in the United States history, due to these micro levels of social oppression, such as the images of Mammy on cleaning or cooking products. From a gender perspective, women have historically been seen as the less dominant of the sexes, and therefore more suitable for home life. With this in mind, most advertisements for domestic products are geared towards women, with more feminine colors on their packaging and humor geared towards a female audience. Delving further into social oppression on both a macro and micro level, we turn to Black feminist Patricia Hill Collins to what she calls the ‘matrix of domination.' The matrix of domination discusses the interrelated nature of four domains of power, including the structural, disciplinary, hegemonic, and interpersonal domains. Each of these spheres work to sustain current inequalities that are faced by minority groups. The structural, disciplinary and hegemonic domains all operate on a macro level, and deal with issues of social oppression such as education, the judicial/criminal justice system, and elements of power and control, respectively. The interpersonal domain is guided by perceptions due to the spheres in the matrix of domination, and therefore plays out in everyday life. The interpersonal domain is situated within the perspective of standpoint theory. Standpoint theory deals with an individual’s social location in that each person will have a very different perspective based on where they are positioned in society. For instance, a White male will have a very different take on an issue such as abortion than that of a Black female. Each will have different knowledge claims and experiences that will have shaped how they perceive abortion. From an oppression viewpoint, standpoint theory proves to be quite pertinent. Oftentimes certain aspects of society, and the knowledge that they hold, are kept suppressed because they are viewed as inferior points of view. This leaves their voices unacknowledged, and their perspective from mainstream society. (en)
  • Unterdrückung ist die einem Individuum, einer Gesellschaft oder Menschengruppe leidvoll zugefügte Erfahrung gezielter Willkür, Gewalt und des Machtmissbrauchs. Der Ausdruck Unterdrückung bezeichnet vor allem das Niederhalten einer bestimmten sozialen Gruppe durch missbräuchlichen Einsatz gesellschaftlicher Organe, ihrer Autorität oder sozialer Maßnahmen. Mehr oder weniger offiziell in einer Gesellschaft institutionalisiert, vermag dies zur „systematischen Unterdrückung“ anzuwachsen. Unterdrückung entsteht durch die allgemeine, auch unbewusste, Annahme, eine bestimmte Menschengruppe sei minderwertig. Unterdrückung beschränkt sich selten allein auf regierungsamtliche Aktivitäten. Auch bestimmte Einzelpersonen können Opfer einer Unterdrückung werden und können in solchem Fall nicht auf die Solidarität einer Gruppe bauen. Die Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte und der Begriff der Menschenrechte wurden als Kritik der Unterdrückung geschaffen, indem die Macht klar beschränkt und ein Machtmissbrauch gegen Einzelpersonen oder eine Menschengruppe verhindert würde. (de)
  • L'oppression est le mauvais traitement ou la discrimination systématique d'un groupe social avec ou sans le soutien des structures d'une société. Le racisme (ainsi que l’antisémitisme et l’islamophobie qui peuvent être classés comme des formes de racisme), le sexisme, l'homophobie, la transphobie, le validisme, l'âgisme, sont des exemples d'oppression. Le spécisme peut pour certains y être classé mais cette inclusion est sujet à débat[réf. nécessaire]. L'oppression est souvent un sujet controversé car il y a désaccord sur les différentes oppressions, sur les causes des oppressions, et aussi parfois une concurrence entre différents groupes opprimés qui peuvent chacun considérer leur oppression comme plus importante que celle d'autres groupes. En droit français, la résistance à l'oppression est l'un des « droits naturels » et imprescriptibles de l'homme (déclaration de 1789). Plusieurs approches courantes à l'oppression sont l'approche « marxiste », l’approche « libertaire », l'approche « humaniste », et l'approche « identitaire ». (fr)
  • 弾圧(だんあつ)は、加害行為。権力者側による弾圧を組織的弾圧と呼ぶこともある。 (ja)
  • И́го — угнетающая, порабощающая сила; в узком смысле — гнёт завоевателей над побежденными. В этом смысле оно употребляется обычно в словосочетании. Например: турецкое иго, монголо-татарское иго, персидское иго. Происходит от праиндоевр. *jugom «соединение». То есть, «иго» — объединение, соединение (например, «Монголо-татарское иго»). Древние римляне заставляли иногда проходить «под иго» неприятельские войска, которые сдались в плен. Для этого на месте, где войско сложило оружие, втыкали 2 копья и привязывали наверху 3-е, поперек. Под ним поодиночке, со своими военачальниками во главе, без оружия и воинских отличий, проходили все воины на виду победоносной армии.Однако и сами римляне неоднократно подвергались тому же бесчестию: в войнах с самнитами (битва в Кавдинском ущелье), нумантийцами и Югуртой. При написании этой статьи использовался материал из Энциклопедического словаря Брокгауза и Ефрона (1890—1907). (ru)
  • Opressão é o efeito negativo experimentado por pessoas que são alvo do exercício cruel do poder numa sociedade ou grupo social. Está particularmente associado ao nacionalismo e sistemas sociais derivados, onde a identidade é construída por antagonismo aos outros. O termo deriva da ideia de ser "esmagado". (pt)
  • Opresja społeczna (łac. oppressio – ucisk) – wykluczanie, marginalizowanie, a nawet unicestwianie danych grup społecznych głównie w celu podkreślenia wyższości opresora, uprzywilejowania go i utrzymania go u władzy. Opresja społeczna nie potrzebuje formalnie ustanowionego wsparcia instytucjonalnego do uzyskania pożądanego efektu – może odbywać się w sposób nieformalny, na gruncie indywidualnym. Stanowi ona metodę wzmocnienia grupowej tożsamości opresora poprzez zdefiniowanie go jako lepszego, bardziej wartościowego i stojącego na wyższym poziomie od wykluczonej grupy (zob. Inny). We współczesnej polszczyźnie słowo "opresja" oznacza trudne, ciężkie położenie, tarapaty, jednak jego dawnym znaczeniem jest właśnie ucisk społeczny. (pl)
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  • 弾圧(だんあつ)は、加害行為。権力者側による弾圧を組織的弾圧と呼ぶこともある。 (ja)
  • Opressão é o efeito negativo experimentado por pessoas que são alvo do exercício cruel do poder numa sociedade ou grupo social. Está particularmente associado ao nacionalismo e sistemas sociais derivados, onde a identidade é construída por antagonismo aos outros. O termo deriva da ideia de ser "esmagado". (pt)
  • Social oppression is the socially supported mistreatment and exploitation of a group of individuals. Social oppression is based on power dynamics, and an individual’s social location in society. Social location, as defined by Lynn Weber, is “an individual’s or a group’s social ‘place’ in the race, class, gender and sexuality hierarchies, as well as in other critical social hierarchies such as age, ethnicity, and nation.” An individual’s social location determines how one will be perceived by others in the whole of society. It maintains three faces of power: the power to design or manipulate the rules, to win the game through force or competition, and the ability to write history. (en)
  • Unterdrückung ist die einem Individuum, einer Gesellschaft oder Menschengruppe leidvoll zugefügte Erfahrung gezielter Willkür, Gewalt und des Machtmissbrauchs. Der Ausdruck Unterdrückung bezeichnet vor allem das Niederhalten einer bestimmten sozialen Gruppe durch missbräuchlichen Einsatz gesellschaftlicher Organe, ihrer Autorität oder sozialer Maßnahmen. Mehr oder weniger offiziell in einer Gesellschaft institutionalisiert, vermag dies zur „systematischen Unterdrückung“ anzuwachsen. Unterdrückung entsteht durch die allgemeine, auch unbewusste, Annahme, eine bestimmte Menschengruppe sei minderwertig. Unterdrückung beschränkt sich selten allein auf regierungsamtliche Aktivitäten. Auch bestimmte Einzelpersonen können Opfer einer Unterdrückung werden und können in solchem Fall nicht auf die So (de)
  • L'oppression est le mauvais traitement ou la discrimination systématique d'un groupe social avec ou sans le soutien des structures d'une société. Le racisme (ainsi que l’antisémitisme et l’islamophobie qui peuvent être classés comme des formes de racisme), le sexisme, l'homophobie, la transphobie, le validisme, l'âgisme, sont des exemples d'oppression. Le spécisme peut pour certains y être classé mais cette inclusion est sujet à débat[réf. nécessaire]. En droit français, la résistance à l'oppression est l'un des « droits naturels » et imprescriptibles de l'homme (déclaration de 1789). (fr)
  • Opresja społeczna (łac. oppressio – ucisk) – wykluczanie, marginalizowanie, a nawet unicestwianie danych grup społecznych głównie w celu podkreślenia wyższości opresora, uprzywilejowania go i utrzymania go u władzy. Opresja społeczna nie potrzebuje formalnie ustanowionego wsparcia instytucjonalnego do uzyskania pożądanego efektu – może odbywać się w sposób nieformalny, na gruncie indywidualnym. Stanowi ona metodę wzmocnienia grupowej tożsamości opresora poprzez zdefiniowanie go jako lepszego, bardziej wartościowego i stojącego na wyższym poziomie od wykluczonej grupy (zob. Inny). (pl)
  • И́го — угнетающая, порабощающая сила; в узком смысле — гнёт завоевателей над побежденными. В этом смысле оно употребляется обычно в словосочетании. Например: турецкое иго, монголо-татарское иго, персидское иго. Происходит от праиндоевр. *jugom «соединение». То есть, «иго» — объединение, соединение (например, «Монголо-татарское иго»). При написании этой статьи использовался материал из Энциклопедического словаря Брокгауза и Ефрона (1890—1907). (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Oppression (en)
  • Unterdrückung (de)
  • Oppression (fr)
  • 弾圧 (ja)
  • Opresja społeczna (pl)
  • Opressão (pt)
  • Иго (ru)
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