The Emirate of Mount Lebanon was an autonomous subdivision in the Ottoman Empire. The Emirate is considered to be an historical precursor of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate established in 1861, which was, in turn, the precursor of the Lebanese Republic of today. Historians have given different names to this entity: Shuf Emirate, Emirate of Jabal Druze, Emirate of Mount Lebanon, as well as Ma'an Emirate. The boundaries were not well defined. The town of Baakleen was the capital of the emirate during the Ma'an period until Fakhr-al-Din II chose to live in Dar El Qamar (nowadays Deir el Qamar) due to a water shortage in Baakleen. Dar El Kamar remained the capital until Bashir Shihab II ascended to the throne and made Beiteddine the capital. Beiteddine remains the capital of the Chouf District

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  • L’émirat du Mont-Liban est le nom attribué à une séquence de l'histoire du Mont-Liban et de ses périphéries, constitués en une entité politique relativement autonome de l'Empire ottoman et aux frontières changeantes. L'émirat n'a jamais formé une province ottomane au sens propre du terme, puisqu'il est partagé entre les pachaliks de Damas, Tripoli puis également de Saida. Il se caractérise cependant par une administration ottomane indirecte qui s'y exerce via le pouvoir de familles locales ainsi que par une symbiose des deux principales communautés du Mont-Liban, les druzes et les maronites. Formé à partir du XVIe siècle, gouverné par la dynastie des Maan, puis des Chehab, l’émirat disparaît vers la fin du XIXe siècle peu après la fin du règne de l’émir Bachir Chehab II. Il en émergera successivement deux entités politiques ottomanes, le double Caïmacanat et la Mutassarifiyya, elles-mêmes à la base de la création du Liban moderne, d'abord sous mandat français (Grand Liban), puis république indépendante à partir de 1943. (fr)
  • The Emirate of Mount Lebanon was an autonomous subdivision in the Ottoman Empire. The Emirate is considered to be an historical precursor of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate established in 1861, which was, in turn, the precursor of the Lebanese Republic of today. Historians have given different names to this entity: Shuf Emirate, Emirate of Jabal Druze, Emirate of Mount Lebanon, as well as Ma'an Emirate. The boundaries were not well defined. The town of Baakleen was the capital of the emirate during the Ma'an period until Fakhr-al-Din II chose to live in Dar El Qamar (nowadays Deir el Qamar) due to a water shortage in Baakleen. Dar El Kamar remained the capital until Bashir Shihab II ascended to the throne and made Beiteddine the capital. Beiteddine remains the capital of the Chouf District today. Fakhr-al-Din II, the Druze prince and Lebanon's most prominent leader, was a strongman who was given leeway by the Ottomans to subdue and destroy other provincial leaderships in Ottoman Syria on their behalf, and who was himself destroyed in the end, to make way for a firmer control by the Ottoman state over the Syrian eyalets. The 'emir' was thus the dominant warlord in the Lebanese mountains. Fakhr al-Din established a subtle symbiosis between the Maronites of Kisrawan and the Druzes of the Shuf mountains. After his downfall, the Ottomans tried different ways to break up this symbiosis, but all efforts failed. In the end, they returned power to the Maans in the person of Ahmad al-Maani, the grandnephew of Fakhr al-Din, in 1667. The Maan and Shihab government of different parts of Mount Lebanon, between 1667 and 1841, was an Ottoman iltizam, or tax farm, rather than a dynastic principality, and the multazims were never reigning princes. The relations between the Porte and the Shihab emirs revolved around the payment of taxes, and the official legitimation of their position as multazims. Such was the precariousness of their position that over the more than three centuries of the two dynasties (1516–1840) only two significantly strong leaders emerged, Fakhr-Al-Din I (1516–1544) and his grand-son Fakhr al-Din II (1591–1635). Bashir Shihab II (1788–1840) was also an important prince but he was viewed as a tyrant at the period rather than a leader. That led to the 1840 revolution against Bashir and his Egyptian allies . (en)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • L’émirat du Mont-Liban est le nom attribué à une séquence de l'histoire du Mont-Liban et de ses périphéries, constitués en une entité politique relativement autonome de l'Empire ottoman et aux frontières changeantes. L'émirat n'a jamais formé une province ottomane au sens propre du terme, puisqu'il est partagé entre les pachaliks de Damas, Tripoli puis également de Saida. Il se caractérise cependant par une administration ottomane indirecte qui s'y exerce via le pouvoir de familles locales ainsi que par une symbiose des deux principales communautés du Mont-Liban, les druzes et les maronites. (fr)
  • The Emirate of Mount Lebanon was an autonomous subdivision in the Ottoman Empire. The Emirate is considered to be an historical precursor of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate established in 1861, which was, in turn, the precursor of the Lebanese Republic of today. Historians have given different names to this entity: Shuf Emirate, Emirate of Jabal Druze, Emirate of Mount Lebanon, as well as Ma'an Emirate. The boundaries were not well defined. The town of Baakleen was the capital of the emirate during the Ma'an period until Fakhr-al-Din II chose to live in Dar El Qamar (nowadays Deir el Qamar) due to a water shortage in Baakleen. Dar El Kamar remained the capital until Bashir Shihab II ascended to the throne and made Beiteddine the capital. Beiteddine remains the capital of the Chouf District (en)
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  • Émirat du Mont-Liban (fr)
  • Mount Lebanon Emirate (en)
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