The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. Voyages on the Middle Passage were large financial undertakings, generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals.

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  • The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. Voyages on the Middle Passage were large financial undertakings, generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals. The "Middle Passage" was considered a time of in-betweenness for those being traded from Africa to America. The close quarters and intentional division of pre-established African communities by the ship crew motivated captive Africans to forge bonds of kinship which then created forced transatlantic communities. Traders from the Americas and Caribbean received the enslaved Africans. European powers such as Portugal, England, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and Brandenburg, as well as traders from Brazil and North America, took part in this trade. The enslaved Africans came mostly from eight regions: Senegambia, Upper Guinea, Windward Coast, Gold Coast, Bight of Benin, Bight of Biafra, West Central Africa and Southeastern Africa. An estimated 15% of the Africans died at sea, with mortality rates considerably higher in Africa itself in the process of capturing and transporting indigenous people to the ships. The total number of African deaths directly attributable to the Middle Passage voyage is estimated at up to two million; a broader look at African deaths directly attributable to the institution of slavery from 1500 to 1900 suggests up to four million African deaths. For two hundred years, 1440–1640, Portuguese slavers had a near monopoly on the export of slaves from Africa. During the 18th century, when the slave trade transported about 6 million Africans, British slavers carried almost 2.5 million. (en)
  • De Middenpassage was een route in de Driehoekshandel over de Atlantische Oceaan, waarover Afrikanen vanuit Afrika naar de slavenmarkten in Noord-Amerika, Zuid-Amerika, en de Caraïben werden vervoerd.De Middenpassage werd zo genoemd omdat het het middelste deel van de Driehoekshandel tussen West-Europa, Afrika en Amerika was; schepen zeilden vanuit Europa met goederen voor de Afrikaanse markt richting Afrika, daar werden de goederen verkocht of geruild tegen slaven. Met de slaven voer men naar Amerika en de Caraïben, die daar op slavenmarkten werden geruild tegen goederen die verkocht konden worden op de Europese markt, waarna men terugkeerde naar Europa. (nl)
  • ミドル・パッセージ(英語: The Middle Passage)とは、大西洋間奴隷貿易において、アフリカの黒人奴隷たちを奴隷船に乗せて南北両アメリカ大陸へと運んだ道筋を指す言葉である。何百万人ものアフリカの人々が「ミドル・パッセージ」を通って、南北両アメリカ大陸へと船上輸送された。 奴隷船における黒人奴隷たちへの扱いが苛酷を極めたため、その15%がミドル・パッセージで死亡した。さらに多くの者がアフリカを発つ前、奴隷商人に拉致されるときや奴隷船への乗船を強制されるときなどに殺害された。最高で200万人のアフリカ人がミドル・パッセージ中に死亡したと考える歴史研究者もいる。それでも940万人から1200万人までの間のいずれかの数のアフリカ人がミドル・パッセージを生き延び、奴隷として南北両アメリカ大陸に到着した。 (ja)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • De Middenpassage was een route in de Driehoekshandel over de Atlantische Oceaan, waarover Afrikanen vanuit Afrika naar de slavenmarkten in Noord-Amerika, Zuid-Amerika, en de Caraïben werden vervoerd.De Middenpassage werd zo genoemd omdat het het middelste deel van de Driehoekshandel tussen West-Europa, Afrika en Amerika was; schepen zeilden vanuit Europa met goederen voor de Afrikaanse markt richting Afrika, daar werden de goederen verkocht of geruild tegen slaven. Met de slaven voer men naar Amerika en de Caraïben, die daar op slavenmarkten werden geruild tegen goederen die verkocht konden worden op de Europese markt, waarna men terugkeerde naar Europa. (nl)
  • ミドル・パッセージ(英語: The Middle Passage)とは、大西洋間奴隷貿易において、アフリカの黒人奴隷たちを奴隷船に乗せて南北両アメリカ大陸へと運んだ道筋を指す言葉である。何百万人ものアフリカの人々が「ミドル・パッセージ」を通って、南北両アメリカ大陸へと船上輸送された。 奴隷船における黒人奴隷たちへの扱いが苛酷を極めたため、その15%がミドル・パッセージで死亡した。さらに多くの者がアフリカを発つ前、奴隷商人に拉致されるときや奴隷船への乗船を強制されるときなどに殺害された。最高で200万人のアフリカ人がミドル・パッセージ中に死亡したと考える歴史研究者もいる。それでも940万人から1200万人までの間のいずれかの数のアフリカ人がミドル・パッセージを生き延び、奴隷として南北両アメリカ大陸に到着した。 (ja)
  • The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. Voyages on the Middle Passage were large financial undertakings, generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals. (en)
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  • Middle Passage (en)
  • Middenpassage (nl)
  • ミドル・パッセージ (ja)
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