A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside of that person. It is an experience that, on most occasions, significantly resembles the experience of perceiving some object, event, or scene, but occurs when the relevant object, event, or scene is not actually present to the senses. There are sometimes episodes, particularly on falling asleep (hypnagogic imagery) and waking up (hypnopompic), when the mental imagery, being of a rapid, phantasmagoric and involuntary character, defies perception, presenting a kaleidoscopic field, in which no distinct object can be discerned. Mental imagery can sometimes produce the same effects as would be produced by the behavior or experience imagined.

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  • A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside of that person. It is an experience that, on most occasions, significantly resembles the experience of perceiving some object, event, or scene, but occurs when the relevant object, event, or scene is not actually present to the senses. There are sometimes episodes, particularly on falling asleep (hypnagogic imagery) and waking up (hypnopompic), when the mental imagery, being of a rapid, phantasmagoric and involuntary character, defies perception, presenting a kaleidoscopic field, in which no distinct object can be discerned. Mental imagery can sometimes produce the same effects as would be produced by the behavior or experience imagined. The nature of these experiences, what makes them possible, and their function (if any) have long been subjects of research and controversy in philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and, more recently, neuroscience. As contemporary researchers use the expression, mental images or imagery can comprise information from any source of sensory input; one may experience auditory images, olfactory images, and so forth. However, the majority of philosophical and scientific investigations of the topic focus upon visual mental imagery. It has sometimes been assumed that, like humans, some types of animals are capable of experiencing mental images. Due to the fundamentally introspective nature of the phenomenon, there is little to no evidence either for or against this view. Philosophers such as George Berkeley and David Hume, and early experimental psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt and William James, understood ideas in general to be mental images. Today it is very widely believed that much imagery functions as mental representations (or mental models), playing an important role in memory and thinking. William Brant (2013, p. 12) traces the scientific use of the phrase "mental images" back to John Tyndall's 1870 speech called the "Scientific Use of the Imagination." Some have gone so far as to suggest that images are best understood to be, by definition, a form of inner, mental or neural representation; in the case of hypnagogic and hypnapompic imagery, it is not representational at all. Others reject the view that the image experience may be identical with (or directly caused by) any such representation in the mind or the brain, but do not take account of the non-representational forms of imagery. In 2010, IBM applied for a patent on a method to extract mental images of human faces from the human brain. It uses a feedback loop based on brain measurements of the fusiform face area in the brain that activates proportionate with degree of facial recognition. It was issued in 2015. (en)
  • Die Imagery debate oder Debatte um bildliche Vorstellung ist eine klassische Kontroverse der Kognitionswissenschaft. Bei ihr geht es um die Frage, wie die kognitiven Prozesse zu beschreiben sind, die ablaufen, wenn man sich etwas bildlich vorstellt. (de)
  • Le terme image mentale est utilisé en philosophie, dans le domaine de la communication et en psychologie cognitive pour décrire la représentation cérébrale mémorisée ou imaginée d’un objet physique, d'un concept, d’une idée, ou d'une situation. La capacité particulièrement développée des êtres humains à former, mémoriser et utiliser des images mentales, pour appréhender l’environnement et communiquer avec les autres, est intimement liée à l’intelligence humaine. Les biologistes et anthropologues sont partagés sur ce type de capacité chez les autres espèces . Ce débat, présent en biologie, est généralement ignoré dans les autres domaines qui tendent à se concentrer sur la connaissance humaine. Pourtant, l’intelligence adaptative, qu’elle soit humaine ou animale, semble être fortement liée à la capacité à stocker, traiter et faire évoluer un capital d’images et de représentations mentales. (fr)
  • L'immagine mentale è una rappresentazione mentale realizzata dalla mente umana, la quale funziona in maniera iconica. Le cose (mai la loro negazione) sono rappresentate anche quando esse non sono direttamente percepite dagli organi di senso.Esistono immagini mentali relative a tutti i cinque sensi, ma la ricerca fino ad ora svolta in ambito psicologico riguarda principalmente le immagini visive. (it)
  • イメージまたは心的イメージ(しんてきイメージ、英語:Mental image)とは、何かの物体、出来事、または情景などを知覚する経験に極めて似通った経験であるが、対象となるはずの当の物体、出来事、また情景が感覚において現前していないような経験を言う(McKellar, 1957年、Richardson, 1969年、Finke, 1989年、Thomas, 2003年)。このような経験の本質や、何がこのような経験を可能としているのか、また、この経験に機能が存在する場合、それらは何なのかは、長年にわたり、哲学、心理学、認知科学、更に近年は神経科学における研究と議論の主題であった。 (ja)
  • Een mentaal beeld is een innerlijk beeld van objecten of mensen of handelingen dat vrijwillig kan worden opgeroepen en bewerkt. In de Engelse literatuur wordt onderzoek naar mentale voorstellingen aangeduid als Mental Imagery. In dit artikel zullen we daarvoor de term mentale beeldvorming hanteren. Dit begrip kan men het best illustreren aan de hand van vragen als: hoeveel vensters heeft uw woonkamer? Welk uitzicht heeft u daarbij op de stad?. Of: als u de letter W 180 graden draait, welke letter ziet u dan? In de meeste gevallen zullen mensen deze vragen pas beantwoorden nadat zij eerst een soort innerlijk beeld van de kamer, het uitzicht of het draaien van de letter hebben gemaakt. Het is dan alsof ze dan naar een plaatje of film 'in hun hoofd' kijken. (nl)
  • Образ в психологии — непосредственное или опосредованное отражение реальности в форме целостной невербальной структуры. Мышление создаёт и воспринимает образы на языке чувственного восприятия. Искусство — процесс и результат значимого выражения чувств в образе. (ru)
  • Imagem mental para Jean Piaget (1961) é a evocação simbólica de uma realidade ausente. Se diferencia de uma representação conceitual por se tratar de uma idéia mais específica e individualizada, podendo representar um objeto típico representante de um determinado conceito por exemplo. Conforme o nível operacional da criança for se desenvolvendo imagens mentais antecipatórias podem ser usadas como forma de apoio importante no planejamento para uma ação e de compreensão da realidade e transformações, o que aconteceria por volta dos 7-8 anos. Antes disso Piaget teoriza que predominariam imagens estáticas e reproduções exatas. Por outro lado, Dias (1995) verificou que crianças em fase de alfabetização também puderam ser beneficiadas pelo uso da imagem mental como estratégia para melhorar o nível de compreensão de histórias que eram lidas para elas. Esse recurso tem a vantagem de não ser oneroso (como slides, ilustrações ou paineis), não precisar de muito treinamento e tratar o estudante como sujeito ativo no aprendizado sendo assim mais adequado de ser utilizado em escolas públicas e creches e mesmo com pessoas de nível intelectual humilde. (pt)
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  • Die Imagery debate oder Debatte um bildliche Vorstellung ist eine klassische Kontroverse der Kognitionswissenschaft. Bei ihr geht es um die Frage, wie die kognitiven Prozesse zu beschreiben sind, die ablaufen, wenn man sich etwas bildlich vorstellt. (de)
  • L'immagine mentale è una rappresentazione mentale realizzata dalla mente umana, la quale funziona in maniera iconica. Le cose (mai la loro negazione) sono rappresentate anche quando esse non sono direttamente percepite dagli organi di senso.Esistono immagini mentali relative a tutti i cinque sensi, ma la ricerca fino ad ora svolta in ambito psicologico riguarda principalmente le immagini visive. (it)
  • イメージまたは心的イメージ(しんてきイメージ、英語:Mental image)とは、何かの物体、出来事、または情景などを知覚する経験に極めて似通った経験であるが、対象となるはずの当の物体、出来事、また情景が感覚において現前していないような経験を言う(McKellar, 1957年、Richardson, 1969年、Finke, 1989年、Thomas, 2003年)。このような経験の本質や、何がこのような経験を可能としているのか、また、この経験に機能が存在する場合、それらは何なのかは、長年にわたり、哲学、心理学、認知科学、更に近年は神経科学における研究と議論の主題であった。 (ja)
  • Образ в психологии — непосредственное или опосредованное отражение реальности в форме целостной невербальной структуры. Мышление создаёт и воспринимает образы на языке чувственного восприятия. Искусство — процесс и результат значимого выражения чувств в образе. (ru)
  • A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside of that person. It is an experience that, on most occasions, significantly resembles the experience of perceiving some object, event, or scene, but occurs when the relevant object, event, or scene is not actually present to the senses. There are sometimes episodes, particularly on falling asleep (hypnagogic imagery) and waking up (hypnopompic), when the mental imagery, being of a rapid, phantasmagoric and involuntary character, defies perception, presenting a kaleidoscopic field, in which no distinct object can be discerned. Mental imagery can sometimes produce the same effects as would be produced by the behavior or experience imagined. (en)
  • Le terme image mentale est utilisé en philosophie, dans le domaine de la communication et en psychologie cognitive pour décrire la représentation cérébrale mémorisée ou imaginée d’un objet physique, d'un concept, d’une idée, ou d'une situation. La capacité particulièrement développée des êtres humains à former, mémoriser et utiliser des images mentales, pour appréhender l’environnement et communiquer avec les autres, est intimement liée à l’intelligence humaine. Les biologistes et anthropologues sont partagés sur ce type de capacité chez les autres espèces . Ce débat, présent en biologie, est généralement ignoré dans les autres domaines qui tendent à se concentrer sur la connaissance humaine. Pourtant, l’intelligence adaptative, qu’elle soit humaine ou animale, semble être fortement liée à (fr)
  • Een mentaal beeld is een innerlijk beeld van objecten of mensen of handelingen dat vrijwillig kan worden opgeroepen en bewerkt. In de Engelse literatuur wordt onderzoek naar mentale voorstellingen aangeduid als Mental Imagery. In dit artikel zullen we daarvoor de term mentale beeldvorming hanteren. (nl)
  • Imagem mental para Jean Piaget (1961) é a evocação simbólica de uma realidade ausente. Se diferencia de uma representação conceitual por se tratar de uma idéia mais específica e individualizada, podendo representar um objeto típico representante de um determinado conceito por exemplo. Conforme o nível operacional da criança for se desenvolvendo imagens mentais antecipatórias podem ser usadas como forma de apoio importante no planejamento para uma ação e de compreensão da realidade e transformações, o que aconteceria por volta dos 7-8 anos. Antes disso Piaget teoriza que predominariam imagens estáticas e reproduções exatas. Por outro lado, Dias (1995) verificou que crianças em fase de alfabetização também puderam ser beneficiadas pelo uso da imagem mental como estratégia para melhorar o nív (pt)
rdfs:label
  • Mental image (en)
  • Bildliche Vorstellung (de)
  • Image mentale (fr)
  • Immagine mentale (it)
  • イメージ (ja)
  • Mentale beeldvorming (nl)
  • Образ (психология) (ru)
  • Imagem mental (pt)
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