Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other. Thus, the source of an apparent thing's activities is not the whole itself, but its parts or an external influence on the parts.

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  • 机械论(Mechanism)是一种对于自然界的信念,认为自然界整体就是一个复杂的机器或工艺品,其不同组成部分间并没有内在联系。在此观点看来,物体或生物的行为可以从其组成部分和外界影响上来解释。 哲学中的机械论观点有两种不同的指向;其都是形而上学的观点,但有着不同的运用领域:第一个用于讨论自然界,第二个用于讨论人和人的心灵。为明确起见,我们或许可以将此两者分别称为宇宙机械论(universal mechanism)和人类机械论(anthropic mechanism)。 (zh)
  • Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other. Thus, the source of an apparent thing's activities is not the whole itself, but its parts or an external influence on the parts. The doctrine of mechanism in philosophy comes in two different flavors. They are both doctrines of metaphysics, but they are different in scope and ambitions: the first is a global doctrine about nature; the second is a local doctrine about humans and their minds, which is hotly contested. For clarity, we might distinguish these two doctrines as universal mechanism and anthropic mechanism. There is no constant meaning in the history of philosophy for the word Mechanism. Originally, the term meant that cosmological theory which ascribes the motion and changes of the world to some external force. In this view material things are purely passive, while according to the opposite theory (i. e., Dynamism), they possess certain internal sources of energy which account for the activity of each and for its influence on the course of events; These meanings, however, soon underwent modification. The question as to whether motion is an inherent property of bodies, or has been communicated to them by some external agency, was very often ignored. With a large number of cosmologists the essential feature of Mechanism is the attempt to reduce all the qualities and activities of bodies to quantitative realities, i. e. to mass and motion. But a further modification soon followed. Living bodies, as is well known, present at first sight certain characteristic properties which have no counterpart in lifeless matter. Mechanism aims to go beyond these appearances. It seeks to explain all "vital" phenomena as physical and chemical facts; whether or not these facts are in turn reducible to mass and motion becomes a secondary question, although Mechanists are generally inclined to favour such reduction. The theory opposed to this biological mechanism is no longer Dynamism, but Vitalism or Neo-vitalism, which maintains that vital activities cannot be explained, and never will be explained, by the laws which govern lifeless matter.— "Mechanism" in Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) (en)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • 机械论(Mechanism)是一种对于自然界的信念,认为自然界整体就是一个复杂的机器或工艺品,其不同组成部分间并没有内在联系。在此观点看来,物体或生物的行为可以从其组成部分和外界影响上来解释。 哲学中的机械论观点有两种不同的指向;其都是形而上学的观点,但有着不同的运用领域:第一个用于讨论自然界,第二个用于讨论人和人的心灵。为明确起见,我们或许可以将此两者分别称为宇宙机械论(universal mechanism)和人类机械论(anthropic mechanism)。 (zh)
  • Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other. Thus, the source of an apparent thing's activities is not the whole itself, but its parts or an external influence on the parts. (en)
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  • 机械论 (zh)
  • Mechanism (philosophy) (en)
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