Max Born (German: [bɔɐ̯n]; 11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 1930s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function".

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dbo:abstract
  • Max Born (German: [bɔɐ̯n]; 11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 1930s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function". Born in 1882 in Breslau, then in Germany, now in Poland and known as Wrocław, Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians, Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom. A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when a metal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle. In the First World War, after originally being placed as a radio operator, he was moved to research duties regarding sound ranging due to his specialist knowledge. In 1921, Born returned to Göttingen, arranging another chair for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck. Under Born, Göttingen became one of the world's foremost centres for physics. In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. The following year, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. His influence extended far beyond his own research. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf all received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen, and his assistants included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner. In January 1933, the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, and Born, who was Jewish, was suspended. He emigrated to Britain, where he took a job at St John's College, Cambridge, and wrote a popular science book, The Restless Universe, as well as Atomic Physics, which soon became a standard textbook. In October 1936, he became the Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, where, working with German-born assistants E. Walter Kellermann and Klaus Fuchs, he continued his research into physics. Max Born became a naturalised British subject on 31 August 1939, one day before World War II broke out in Europe. He remained at Edinburgh until 1952. He retired to Bad Pyrmont, in West Germany, and died in a hospital in Göttingen on 5 January 1970. (en)
  • ماكس بورن (بالألمانية: Max Born) عالم رياضيات وفيزيائي ألماني ولد في 11 ديسمبر 1882 في فروتزواف في بولندا، حصل سنة 1954 على جائزة نوبل في الفيزياء بفضل بحوثه الأساسية عن ميكانيكا الكم.وتوفى في 5 يناير 1970 في غوتينغن بألمانيا). (ar)
  • Max Born (* 11. Dezember 1882 in Breslau; † 5. Januar 1970 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Mathematiker und Physiker. Für grundlegende Beiträge zur Quantenmechanik wurde er 1954 mit dem Nobelpreis für Physik ausgezeichnet. (de)
  • Max Born (Breslau, 11 de diciembre de 1882 - Gotinga, 5 de enero de 1970) fue un matemático y físico alemán. Obtuvo el Premio Nobel de Física en 1954 por sus trabajos en mecánica cuántica, y compartió este galardón con el físico alemán Walter Bothe. (es)
  • Max Born (11 décembre 1882 à Breslau, Empire allemand - 5 janvier 1970) est un physicien allemand. Physicien théoricien remarquable, il est principalement connu pour son importante contribution à la physique quantique. Il a été le premier à donner au carré du module de la fonction d'onde la signification d'une densité de probabilité de présence. Il a partagé le prix Nobel de physique de 1954, avec Walther Bothe, pour ses travaux sur la théorie des quanta. (fr)
  • マックス・ボルン(Max Born、1882年12月11日 - 1970年1月5日)は、ドイツ生まれのイギリスの理論物理学者。量子力学の初期における立役者の一人である。1954年ノーベル物理学賞を受賞。 (ja)
  • Max Born (Breslau, 11 december 1882 – Göttingen, 5 januari 1970) was een Duitse, later, vanaf 1933 Britse wis- en natuurkundige. In 1954 ontving hij de Nobelprijs voor natuurkunde voor zijn waarschijnlijkheidsinterpretatie van de Schrödingervergelijking. (nl)
  • Max Born (ur. 11 grudnia 1882 we Wrocławiu, zm. 5 stycznia 1970 w Getyndze) – pochodzący z zasymilowanej wielkomieszczańskiej rodziny niemiecko-żydowskiej matematyk i fizyk, laureat Nagrody Nobla w dziedzinie fizyki (1954). (pl)
  • Max Born (Breslávia, 11 de dezembro de 1882 — Gotinga, 5 de janeiro de 1970) foi um físico e matemático alemão que foi fundamental para o desenvolvimento da mecânica quântica. Também fez contribuições à física do estado sólido e óptica e supervisionou o trabalho de vários físicos notáveis ​​nas décadas de 1920 e 1930. Ganhou em 1954 o Prêmio Nobel de Física por sua "investigação fundamental na Mecânica Quântica, especialmente na interpretação estatística da função de ondas". Entrou na Universidade de Gotinga, em 1904, onde conheceu três matemáticos de renome, Felix Klein, David Hilbert e Hermann Minkowski. Escreveu sua tese sobre o tema "Estabilidade de Elástico em um Plano e Espaço", vencedor do Prêmio da Faculdade de Filosofia da Universidade. Em 1905, ele começou a pesquisar a relatividade especial com Minkowski, e, posteriormente, escreveu sua tese de habilitação sobre o modelo atômico de Thomson. Um encontro ao acaso com Fritz Haber em Berlim, em 1918, levou à discussão da maneira pela qual um composto iônico é formado quando um metal reage com um átomo de halogênio, o qual é atualmente conhecido como ciclo de Born-Haber. Em 1921, Born voltou para Gotinga, arranjando outra cadeira para o seu amigo e colega de longa data James Franck. Nos termos de Born, Gotinga tornou-se um dos centros mais importantes do mundo para a física. Em 1925, Born e Werner Heisenberg formularam a representação da mecânica matricial da mecânica quântica. No ano seguinte, ele formulou a interpretação hoje padrão da função de densidade de probabilidade para ψ*ψ na equação de Schrödinger, pela qual ele foi agraciado com o Prêmio Nobel em 1954. Sua influência se estendeu muito além de sua própria pesquisa. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, e Victor Weisskopf todos receberam seu doutorado sob a orientação de Born em Gotinga, e seus assistentes incluíam Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller e Eugene Wigner. Em janeiro de 1933, o Partido Nazista chegou ao poder na Alemanha, e Born, que era judeu, foi suspenso. Ele emigrou para a Grã-Bretanha, onde trabalhou no Colégio de de St John, Cambridge, e escreveu um popular livro de ciência, The Restless Universe, assim como Atomic Physics, que logo se tornou um livro de texto padrão. Em outubro de 1936, ele se tornou o Professor Tait de Filosofia Natural na Universidade de Edimburgo, onde, trabalhando com os assistentes de origem alemã E. Walter Kellermann e Klaus Fuchs, continuou a sua investigação sobre a física. Max Born tornou-se um cidadão britânico naturalizado em 31 de agosto de 1939, um dia antes da Segunda Guerra Mundial eclodir na Europa. Permaneceu em Edimburgo até 1952. Aposentou-se em Bad Pyrmont, na Alemanha Ocidental. Morreu no hospital em Gotinga, em 5 de janeiro de 1970. (pt)
  • Макс Борн (нем. Max Born; 11 декабря 1882, Бреслау — 5 января 1970, Гёттинген) — немецкий и британский физик-теоретик и математик, один из создателей квантовой механики. Лауреат Нобелевской премии по физике (1954). Член ряда научных обществ мира, в том числе иностранный член Академии наук СССР (1934). Борн является автором фундаментальных результатов в квантовой теории: он стал одним из основоположников матричной механики, предложил вероятностную интерпретацию волновой функции Шрёдингера, внёс существенный вклад в квантовую теорию рассеяния (борновское приближение) и так далее. Занимался проблемами динамики кристаллических решёток, термодинамикой и кинетической теорией твёрдых тел, жидкостей и газов, теорией относительности, теорией упругости. Применял идеи квантовой механики к вопросам из различных разделов науки (строение атомов и молекул, физика твёрдого тела и другие), предпринял попытку построения нелинейной электродинамики (теория Борна — Инфельда). В Гёттингене и Эдинбурге Борн создал крупные научные школы, выступал с публикациями по философским и социальным проблемам науки. После Второй мировой войны стал одним из основателей и активных участников движения учёных за мир. (ru)
  • 马克斯·玻恩(Max Born,1882年12月11日-1970年1月5日),德國的猶太裔物理學家,量子力學的創始人之一,因对量子力学的基础性研究尤其是对波函数的统计学诠释,與瓦爾特·博特共同获得1954年的诺贝尔物理学奖。 (zh)
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  • ماكس بورن (بالألمانية: Max Born) عالم رياضيات وفيزيائي ألماني ولد في 11 ديسمبر 1882 في فروتزواف في بولندا، حصل سنة 1954 على جائزة نوبل في الفيزياء بفضل بحوثه الأساسية عن ميكانيكا الكم.وتوفى في 5 يناير 1970 في غوتينغن بألمانيا). (ar)
  • Max Born (* 11. Dezember 1882 in Breslau; † 5. Januar 1970 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Mathematiker und Physiker. Für grundlegende Beiträge zur Quantenmechanik wurde er 1954 mit dem Nobelpreis für Physik ausgezeichnet. (de)
  • Max Born (Breslau, 11 de diciembre de 1882 - Gotinga, 5 de enero de 1970) fue un matemático y físico alemán. Obtuvo el Premio Nobel de Física en 1954 por sus trabajos en mecánica cuántica, y compartió este galardón con el físico alemán Walter Bothe. (es)
  • Max Born (11 décembre 1882 à Breslau, Empire allemand - 5 janvier 1970) est un physicien allemand. Physicien théoricien remarquable, il est principalement connu pour son importante contribution à la physique quantique. Il a été le premier à donner au carré du module de la fonction d'onde la signification d'une densité de probabilité de présence. Il a partagé le prix Nobel de physique de 1954, avec Walther Bothe, pour ses travaux sur la théorie des quanta. (fr)
  • マックス・ボルン(Max Born、1882年12月11日 - 1970年1月5日)は、ドイツ生まれのイギリスの理論物理学者。量子力学の初期における立役者の一人である。1954年ノーベル物理学賞を受賞。 (ja)
  • Max Born (Breslau, 11 december 1882 – Göttingen, 5 januari 1970) was een Duitse, later, vanaf 1933 Britse wis- en natuurkundige. In 1954 ontving hij de Nobelprijs voor natuurkunde voor zijn waarschijnlijkheidsinterpretatie van de Schrödingervergelijking. (nl)
  • Max Born (ur. 11 grudnia 1882 we Wrocławiu, zm. 5 stycznia 1970 w Getyndze) – pochodzący z zasymilowanej wielkomieszczańskiej rodziny niemiecko-żydowskiej matematyk i fizyk, laureat Nagrody Nobla w dziedzinie fizyki (1954). (pl)
  • 马克斯·玻恩(Max Born,1882年12月11日-1970年1月5日),德國的猶太裔物理學家,量子力學的創始人之一,因对量子力学的基础性研究尤其是对波函数的统计学诠释,與瓦爾特·博特共同获得1954年的诺贝尔物理学奖。 (zh)
  • Max Born (German: [bɔɐ̯n]; 11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 1930s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function". (en)
  • Max Born (Breslávia, 11 de dezembro de 1882 — Gotinga, 5 de janeiro de 1970) foi um físico e matemático alemão que foi fundamental para o desenvolvimento da mecânica quântica. Também fez contribuições à física do estado sólido e óptica e supervisionou o trabalho de vários físicos notáveis ​​nas décadas de 1920 e 1930. Ganhou em 1954 o Prêmio Nobel de Física por sua "investigação fundamental na Mecânica Quântica, especialmente na interpretação estatística da função de ondas". (pt)
  • Макс Борн (нем. Max Born; 11 декабря 1882, Бреслау — 5 января 1970, Гёттинген) — немецкий и британский физик-теоретик и математик, один из создателей квантовой механики. Лауреат Нобелевской премии по физике (1954). Член ряда научных обществ мира, в том числе иностранный член Академии наук СССР (1934). (ru)
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  • ماكس بورن (ar)
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  • Max Born (fr)
  • Max Born (it)
  • マックス・ボルン (ja)
  • Max Born (nl)
  • Max Born (pl)
  • Max Born (pt)
  • Борн, Макс (ru)
  • 马克斯·玻恩 (zh)
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