The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, was founded in 1984 by Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan. MAK became the forerunner to al-Qaeda and was instrumental in creating the fundraising and recruitment network that benefited al-Qaeda during the 1990s.

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  • The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, was founded in 1984 by Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan. MAK became the forerunner to al-Qaeda and was instrumental in creating the fundraising and recruitment network that benefited al-Qaeda during the 1990s. During the Soviet-Afghanistan war, MAK played a minimal role, training a small group of 100 mujahidin for the war and disbursing approximately $1 million in donations from Muslims sourced via a network of global offices in Arabic and Western countries, allegedly including approximately thirty in the United States. MAK maintained a close liaison with Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency through which the CIA and the intelligence agency of Saudi Arabia Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah funneled money to Afghan Mujaheddin. The MAK paid the airfare for new recruits to be flown into the Afghan region for training. MAK was closely cooperating with Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin faction of the Peshawar Seven. As the war ended, a difference in opinion emerged between Azzam and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) led by Ayman al-Zawahiri over the future direction of MAK. Azzam wanted to use the wealth it had generated, and the network it created to help install a pure Islamic government in post-war Afghanistan and opposed "fitna" among Muslims, including attacks against governments of Muslim countries. Al-Zawahiri wanted to use MAK’s assets to fund a global jihad, including the overthrow of governments in Muslim countries deemed un-Islamic. Bin Laden, MAK's most important fundraiser, was strongly influenced by Zawahiri, although he remained close to Azzam. On November 24, 1989, Azzam was killed by the detonation of 3 mines, by unknown assassins. Azzam as well as his 2 sons were killed in the assassination on their way to their local mosque for evening prayers. Following Azzam's death, bin Laden assumed control of MAK and the organization became absorbed into al-Qaeda. Suspects include competing Afghan militia leaders, Pakistani Interservices Intelligence Agency, the CIA, and the Israeli Mossad, as well as those who opposed moving the jihad to the Palestinian territories - including bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri - and the Iranian intelligence. (en)
  • Das Maktab al-Chidamāt, auch falsch Maktab al-Chadamat, (arabisch مكتب الخدمات Maktab al-chidamāt ‚Dienstleistungsbüro‘ bzw. مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب Maktab Chidamāt al-Mudschāhidīn al-ʿArab ‚Dienstleistungsbüro der arabischen Mudschahedin‘, englisch Maktab al-Khidamāt geschrieben, abgekürzt MAK) war eine Anlaufstelle für islamistische Afghanistankämpfer zur Zeit des bewaffneten Widerstandes gegen die sowjetische Besatzung Afghanistans. Das MAK wurde zu Beginn der 1980er-Jahre von Abdallah Azzam, einem Mentor Osama bin Ladens, in Peschawar (Pakistan) gegründet. Bin Laden spielte innerhalb des MAK eine wichtige Rolle. Aufgabe des MAK war, zukünftige Afghanistan-Kämpfer zu rekrutieren und auszubilden. Außerdem diente es als Mittler für finanzielle Transaktionen zugunsten des afghanischen Widerstands gegen die sowjetische Besetzung. Es unterhielt enge Beziehungen zum saudiarabischen Geheimdienst al-Muchabarat al-'Amma und zur pakistanischen Regierung, insbesondere zum pakistanischen Geheimdienst ISI, sowie über diesen zur CIA, die es über diesen mitfinanzierte. Nach dem Tod von Azzam übernahm Bin Laden die Führung des Maktab al-Chidamat und entwickelte daraus al-Qaida. (de)
  • Le Maktab al-Khadamāt ou Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-Arab (arabe : مكتب الخدمات ou مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, Bureau de services, également connu sous le nom de Bureau afghan), a probablement été fondé par le docteur Abdullah Azzam, professeur d’Oussama ben Laden, et membre influent des Frères musulmans. Durant la guerre soviéto-afghane, le MAK a joué un rôle minime, la formation d'un petit groupe de 100 combattants et la collecte d'environ 2 millions de dollars en dons de musulmans obtenus par l'intermédiaire d'un réseau de bureaux internationaux dans les pays arabes et occidentaux. L'organisation est placée sur la liste officielle des organisations terroristes des États-Unis et sur la liste des organisations et personnes considérées par l'ONU comme proches d'Al-Qaïda ou des talibans. Le MAK fut lié étroitement au gouvernement pakistanais, particulièrement le service de renseignement pakistanais. (fr)
  • Il Maktab al-Khidamat al-Mujahidin al-ʿArab (in in arabo: مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب‎), o semplicemente Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), è stato fondato nel 1984 da ʿAbd Allāh Yūsuf al-ʿAzzām e Osama bin Laden per raccogliere fondi e reclutare mujahidin stranieri nella guerra contro l'Unione Sovietica in Afghanistan. Il MAK è stato il precursore di al-Qāʿida e contribuì in concreto a creare la rete di raccolta fondi e di reclutamento che sostenne al-Qāʿida negli anni 90. Durante l'invasione sovietica dell'Afghanistan, il MAK svolse un ruolo marginale, addestrando un ristretto gruppo di un centinaio di mujahidin per la guerra e distribuendo circa 2 milioni di dollari in donazioni da musulmani raccolte attraverso un network globale di uffici in paesi islamici e occidentali, inclusi presumibilmente trenta uffici negli Stati Uniti. Il MAK mantenne stretti rapporti con l'Inter-Services Intelligence del Pakistan, tramite cui la CIA trasmise denaro ai mujahidin afghani, seppure mai direttamente al MAK o a volontari mujahidin di altri paesi. Alla fine della guerra, tra al-ʿAzzām e la Jihad islamica egiziana (JIE) guidata Ayman al-Zawahiri emersero divergenze a proposito della direzione futura del MAK. Azzam intendeva utilizzare i fondi raccolti e la rete da esso creata per appoggiare un governo islamico nell'Afghanistan del dopoguerra e si oppose a una fitna tra musulmani, osteggiando attacchi contro governi di nazioni musulmane. Al-Zawāhirī voleva invece usare le risorse del MAK per sostenere una Jihad globale e rovesciare i governi di nazioni musulmane considerati anti-islamici. Nonostante Bin Laden, il più importante finanziatore del MAK, rimase vicino ad al-ʿAzzām, egli subiva profondamente l'influenza di al-Zawāhirī. Il 24 novembre del 1989, al-ʿAzzām fu ucciso, da attentatori sconosciuti, nell'esplosione di tre mine; la JIE e la CIA furono sospettate. al-ʿAzzām e i suoi tre figli furono uccisi nell'attentato mentre erano diretti alla loro moschea per le preghiere della sera. In seguito alla morte di Azzam, bin Laden assunse il controllo del MAK e l'organizzazione fu assorbita da al-Qāʿida. (it)
  • マクタブ・アル=ヒダマト (アラビア語: مكتب الخدمات‎, 英語: Maktab al-Khidamat,MAK)は、1984年にアブドゥッラー・アッザームとウサーマ・ビン=ラーディンがパキスタンにおいて、ソビエト連邦によるアフガニスタン侵攻に対抗するアラビア人ムジャーヒディーンのリクルートとその財政的基盤確立のために設立した組織である。「サービス局」(Afghan Services Bureau)という名でも知られている。MAKは1990年以降に世界各地でテロを繰り広げたイスラーム過激派・アルカーイダの母体となった。 (ja)
  • Maktab al-Khidamat, também Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (em árabe: مكتب الخدمات ou مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), também conhecido como Direção de Serviços Afegãos, foi fundado em 1984 por Abdullah Yusuf Azzam e Osama bin Laden para angariar fundos e recrutar mujahidins estrangeiros para a guerra contra os soviéticos no Afeganistão. O MAK tornou-se o precursor para a Al-Qaeda e foi fundamental na criação da rede de arrecadação de fundos e de recrutamento que beneficiaram a al-Qaeda na década de 1990. Durante a Guerra soviética no Afeganistão, o MAK desempenhou um papel mínimo, treinando um pequeno grupo de 100 mujahidins para a guerra e desembolsando cerca de $2 milhões em doações de muçulmanos provenientes de uma rede de escritórios globais em países árabes e ocidentais, supostamente incluindo trinta dos Estados Unidos. O MAK manteve uma ligação estreita com a agência Inter-Services Intelligence do Paquistão (ISI) por meio da qual a CIA e a agência de inteligência da Arábia Saudita, Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah, canalizaram dinheiro para os mujahidins afegãos. O MAK pagou passagem aérea aos novos recrutas para que voassem à região afegã para treinamento. O MAK cooperou estreitamente com a facção de Peshawar Sete, Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin. (pt)
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  • マクタブ・アル=ヒダマト (アラビア語: مكتب الخدمات‎, 英語: Maktab al-Khidamat,MAK)は、1984年にアブドゥッラー・アッザームとウサーマ・ビン=ラーディンがパキスタンにおいて、ソビエト連邦によるアフガニスタン侵攻に対抗するアラビア人ムジャーヒディーンのリクルートとその財政的基盤確立のために設立した組織である。「サービス局」(Afghan Services Bureau)という名でも知られている。MAKは1990年以降に世界各地でテロを繰り広げたイスラーム過激派・アルカーイダの母体となった。 (ja)
  • The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, was founded in 1984 by Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan. MAK became the forerunner to al-Qaeda and was instrumental in creating the fundraising and recruitment network that benefited al-Qaeda during the 1990s. (en)
  • Das Maktab al-Chidamāt, auch falsch Maktab al-Chadamat, (arabisch مكتب الخدمات Maktab al-chidamāt ‚Dienstleistungsbüro‘ bzw. مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب Maktab Chidamāt al-Mudschāhidīn al-ʿArab ‚Dienstleistungsbüro der arabischen Mudschahedin‘, englisch Maktab al-Khidamāt geschrieben, abgekürzt MAK) war eine Anlaufstelle für islamistische Afghanistankämpfer zur Zeit des bewaffneten Widerstandes gegen die sowjetische Besatzung Afghanistans. Nach dem Tod von Azzam übernahm Bin Laden die Führung des Maktab al-Chidamat und entwickelte daraus al-Qaida. (de)
  • Le Maktab al-Khadamāt ou Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-Arab (arabe : مكتب الخدمات ou مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, Bureau de services, également connu sous le nom de Bureau afghan), a probablement été fondé par le docteur Abdullah Azzam, professeur d’Oussama ben Laden, et membre influent des Frères musulmans. Durant la guerre soviéto-afghane, le MAK a joué un rôle minime, la formation d'un petit groupe de 100 combattants et la collecte d'environ 2 millions de dollars en dons de musulmans obtenus par l'intermédiaire d'un réseau de bureaux internationaux dans les pays arabes et occidentaux. (fr)
  • Il Maktab al-Khidamat al-Mujahidin al-ʿArab (in in arabo: مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب‎), o semplicemente Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), è stato fondato nel 1984 da ʿAbd Allāh Yūsuf al-ʿAzzām e Osama bin Laden per raccogliere fondi e reclutare mujahidin stranieri nella guerra contro l'Unione Sovietica in Afghanistan. Il MAK è stato il precursore di al-Qāʿida e contribuì in concreto a creare la rete di raccolta fondi e di reclutamento che sostenne al-Qāʿida negli anni 90. (it)
  • Maktab al-Khidamat, também Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (em árabe: مكتب الخدمات ou مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), também conhecido como Direção de Serviços Afegãos, foi fundado em 1984 por Abdullah Yusuf Azzam e Osama bin Laden para angariar fundos e recrutar mujahidins estrangeiros para a guerra contra os soviéticos no Afeganistão. O MAK tornou-se o precursor para a Al-Qaeda e foi fundamental na criação da rede de arrecadação de fundos e de recrutamento que beneficiaram a al-Qaeda na década de 1990. (pt)
rdfs:label
  • Maktab al-Khidamat (en)
  • Maktab al-Chidamāt (de)
  • Maktab al-Khadamāt (fr)
  • Maktab al-Khidamat (it)
  • マクタブ・アル=ヒダマト (ja)
  • Maktab al-Khidamat (pt)
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