When Luxembourg was invaded and annexed by Nazi Germany in 1940, a national consciousness started to come about. From 1941 onwards, the first resistance groups, such as the Letzeburger Ro'de Lé'w or the PI-Men, were founded. Operating underground, they secretly worked against the German occupation, helping to bring political refugees and those trying to avoid being conscripted into the German forces across the border, and put out patriotic leaflets (often depicting Grand Duchess Charlotte) encouraging the population of Luxembourg to pull through.

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  • La résistance au Luxembourg pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale apparaît dès l'invasion du Luxembourg en 1940. Mais ces positions n'en font pas une place forte. Au contraire le petit bourg à une structure qui manque de communications.. Lors de l'annonce d'enrôlement de force des Luxembourgeois dans l'armée allemande, le pays réagit avec une grève générale qui sera rapidement réprimée dans le sang. En 1942, 10 200 Luxembourgeois furent obligés d'intégrer l'armée allemande. Durant l'Occupation, ce sont au total 5 700 Luxembourgeois qui furent également déportés et massacrés par les nazis. (fr)
  • When Luxembourg was invaded and annexed by Nazi Germany in 1940, a national consciousness started to come about. From 1941 onwards, the first resistance groups, such as the Letzeburger Ro'de Lé'w or the PI-Men, were founded. Operating underground, they secretly worked against the German occupation, helping to bring political refugees and those trying to avoid being conscripted into the German forces across the border, and put out patriotic leaflets (often depicting Grand Duchess Charlotte) encouraging the population of Luxembourg to pull through. As with other countries, the origins, ideological and otherwise, of the different Resistance groups were varied: it ranged from those who found Nazi ideology itself worth fighting against, to those who valued first and foremost their country's freedom. The political spectrum ranged from the communists to clerical-conservative elements (including even some anti-Semitic undertones). (en)
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  • La résistance au Luxembourg pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale apparaît dès l'invasion du Luxembourg en 1940. Mais ces positions n'en font pas une place forte. Au contraire le petit bourg à une structure qui manque de communications.. Lors de l'annonce d'enrôlement de force des Luxembourgeois dans l'armée allemande, le pays réagit avec une grève générale qui sera rapidement réprimée dans le sang. En 1942, 10 200 Luxembourgeois furent obligés d'intégrer l'armée allemande. Durant l'Occupation, ce sont au total 5 700 Luxembourgeois qui furent également déportés et massacrés par les nazis. (fr)
  • When Luxembourg was invaded and annexed by Nazi Germany in 1940, a national consciousness started to come about. From 1941 onwards, the first resistance groups, such as the Letzeburger Ro'de Lé'w or the PI-Men, were founded. Operating underground, they secretly worked against the German occupation, helping to bring political refugees and those trying to avoid being conscripted into the German forces across the border, and put out patriotic leaflets (often depicting Grand Duchess Charlotte) encouraging the population of Luxembourg to pull through. (en)
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  • Résistance au Luxembourg pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (fr)
  • Luxembourg Resistance (en)
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