The KVTK (Russian: Кислородно-водородный тяжёлого класса, Oxygen/Hydrogen Heavy Class) is a liquid oxygen/hydrogen upper stage for high energy orbits. The KVTK contains an RD-0146D engine and is designed for use on Angara rockets. KVTK would be the first hydrogen-powered upper stage for use on a Russian launch vehicle, although Khrunichev has previously produced a hydrogen-powered upper stage (KVD-1) for the Indian GSLV. KVTK is designed to provide up to five ignitions, allowing for complex orbital maneuvering, and have an on-orbit lifespan of up to nine hours. KVTK would allow an increase in payload to GTO of 20-50% compared to the Angara A5's standard Briz-M upper stage, powered by UDMH and N2O4.
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