Judith L. Hand is an evolutionary biologist, animal behaviorist (ethologist), novelist, and pioneer in the emerging field of peace ethology. She writes on a variety of topics related to ethology, including the biological and evolutionary roots of war, gender differences in conflict resolution, empowering women, and abolishing war. Her lectures include recent developments in peace research, which may help us prevent war.

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  • Judith L. Hand is an evolutionary biologist, animal behaviorist (ethologist), novelist, and pioneer in the emerging field of peace ethology. She writes on a variety of topics related to ethology, including the biological and evolutionary roots of war, gender differences in conflict resolution, empowering women, and abolishing war. Her lectures include recent developments in peace research, which may help us prevent war. Her book, Women, Power, and the Biology of Peace is an in-depth exploration of human gender differences with regard to aggression. Her web site, A Future Without War, a book by the same name, and a paper, To Abolish War. are devoted to the concept of and requirements for abolishing war. The website provides an extensive collection of essays and book reviews, issues a topical newsletter, includes a blog, and is a gateway to other related sites. Hand has been a member of the International Society for Human Ethology (ISHE), since its inception in 1972. ISHE is a professional organization whose members study human behavior and come from such diverse disciplines as biology, anthropology and psychology. The term "peace ethology" was coined by ethologist, Peter Verbeek, as a subdiscipline of human ethology, one that is concerned with issues of human conflict, conflict resolution, reconciliation, war, peacemaking, and peacekeeping behavior. Verbeek suggests that peace ethology is uniquely positioned to make an important contribution to the newly emerging science of peace. Recent studies show that young children display peacemaking behavior that is remarkably similar in form and timing to peacemaking observed in non-human primates and other animals. In the past, researchers assumed that peace emerges, almost by default, when violence or aggression ceases. Studies on the behavioral biology of aggression emphasized what led up to and happened during competition and aggression. Few studies investigated what happened afterwards. In 1979, Frans de Waal and Marc van Roosmalen found that chimpanzee opponents tend to seek each other out for peaceful contact shortly after aggression has ceased. Three decades of studies indicate that peacemaking, like aggression, is a natural aspect of primate social behavior. Peace is now seen as a concept worthy of study in its own right. Hand is a social activist committed to the abolition of war. Her argument for the ability of humans to achieve this goal is developed in Women, Power, and the Biology of Peace and her website. Her argument rests on several controversial premises: 1) that while the roots of war do lie in aspects of male biology, war itself is not an inherited and therefore inescapable feature of human behavior, but instead is primarily the result of cultural factors; 2) that women are natural allies of nonviolent conflict resolution, and that excluding women from governing is an underlying condition that favors war because male inclinations for dominance using aggression go unchecked; 3) that to abolish war, a key requirement is the global empowerment of women (educational, financial, legal, political and religious). Other requirements for abolishing war and how long such a campaign might take are also explained on her website and in the paper, To Abolish War. (en)
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  • 1940-02-04 (xsd:date)
  • 1940-2-4
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  • Judith L. Hand
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  • American
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  • American writer (en)
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  • Judith L. Hand is an evolutionary biologist, animal behaviorist (ethologist), novelist, and pioneer in the emerging field of peace ethology. She writes on a variety of topics related to ethology, including the biological and evolutionary roots of war, gender differences in conflict resolution, empowering women, and abolishing war. Her lectures include recent developments in peace research, which may help us prevent war. (en)
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  • Judith Hand (en)
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  • Judith L. Hand, Ph.D. (en)
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