His mother was María Calderón (La Calderona), a popular actress, who was forced into a convent shortly after his birth. He was raised in León by a woman of modest circumstances who likely did not know his parentage, though he received "a careful education" at Ocaña (Toledo). In 1642, the King recognized him officially as his son, and John began his life's career as a military representative of his father's interests.

Property Value
dbo:abstract
  • Prinz Juan José de Austria, deutsch Johann Joseph von Habsburg (* 7. April 1629 in Madrid; † 17. September 1679 ebenda) war ein spanischer Heerführer und Staatsmann. (de)
  • His mother was María Calderón (La Calderona), a popular actress, who was forced into a convent shortly after his birth. He was raised in León by a woman of modest circumstances who likely did not know his parentage, though he received "a careful education" at Ocaña (Toledo). In 1642, the King recognized him officially as his son, and John began his life's career as a military representative of his father's interests. Don John was sent in 1647 to Naples, then in the throes of the popular rising first led by Masaniello, with a naval squadron and a military force, to support the viceroy. There he played a waiting game. While the Duke of Arcos inserted agents, Don John surrounded the seething city with his forces until the exhaustion of the insurgents and the follies of their French leader, Henry, duke of Guise allowed him to move in, crush the remains of the revolt and drive out the, by then, despised French. He was next sent as viceroy to Sicily, whence he was recalled in 1651 to complete the pacification of Catalonia, which had been in revolt since 1640. The high handedness of the French, whom the Catalans had called in to help their revolt, had produced a reaction, and many switched their loyalties back to the Spanish King. By the time Don John assumed command, most of Catalonia had been recovered and he had not much more to do than to preside over the final siege of Barcelona and the convention which terminated the revolt in October 1652. On both occasions, he played the peacemaker, and this sympathetic part, combined with his own pleasant manners, an engaging personality, a handsome person with bright eyes and abundant raven-black hair - a complete contrast to his Habsburg relatives in court - made him a popular royal favorite. In 1656, he was sent to command in Flanders, then in revolt against his own sovereign. At the storming of the French camp at Battle of Valenciennes (1656) in 1656, Don Juan Jose displayed great personal courage at the head of a brilliantly executed cavalry charge that caught the French totally by surprise. When, however, he took a part in the leadership of the army at the battle of the Dunes, fought against the French under Turenne and the British forces sent by Cromwell, he was decisively defeated and failed to raise the siege of Dunkirk, in spite of the efforts of Condé, whose invaluable advice he neglected, and the stubborn fight put up by his own troops. During 1661 and 1662, he fought against the Portuguese in Extremadura. The Spanish troops were ill-supplied and irregularly paid and in a rugged, hostile country. Morale was poor and they were untrustworthy but they were superior in numbers and some successes were gained. If Don John had not suffered from the indolence which Clarendon considered his chief defect, the Portuguese might have been hard pressed. John's forces overran the greater part of southern Portugal, but in 1663, with the Portuguese forces reinforced by a body of English troops, and put under the command of the Huguenot Schomberg, Don John was completely beaten at Estremoz. Even so, he might not have lost the confidence of his father, if Queen Mariana, mother of the sickly Infante Charles, the only surviving legitimate son of the king, had not regarded him with distrust and dislike. Don John was removed from command and sent to his command at Consuegra. After the death of Philip IV. in 1665 Don John became the recognized leader of the opposition to the government of Philip's widow, the regent. She and her favorite, the German Jesuit Juan Everardo Nithard, seized and put to death one of his most trusted servants, Don Jose Malladas. Don John, in return, put himself at the head of a rising of Aragon and Catalonia, which led to the expulsion of Nithard on 25 February 1669. Don John was, however, forced to content himself with the viceroyalty of Aragon. In 1677, the queen mother aroused universal opposition by her shameless favor for Fernando de Valenzuela. Don John was able to drive her from court, and establish himself as prime minister. Great hopes were entertained for his administration, but it proved disappointing and short; Don John died, perhaps by poison, on 17 September 1679. His name featured prominently in the Popish Plot fabricated by Titus Oates in 1678. Oates unwisely claimed to have met Don John in Madrid; when questioned closely by Charles II, who had met Don John in 1656, it became clear that Oates had no idea what he looked like, confirming the King's suspicion that the Plot was an invention. (en)
  • Juan José de Austria (Madrid, 7 de abril de 1629 – ibídem, 17 de septiembre de 1679) fue un político y militar español, hijo bastardo del rey Felipe IV y la actriz María Calderón. (es)
  • Juan José d’Autriche, comte d’Oñate, né en 1629 et mort le 17 septembre 1679, est un homme politique et général espagnol qui a notamment été gouverneur des Pays-Bas espagnols de 1656 à 1659 et premier ministre de l’Espagne de 1677 à 1679. (fr)
  • Don Juan José van Oostenrijk (Madrid, 7 april 1629 - aldaar, 17 september 1679) was een Spaans veldheer en staatsman, en van 1656 tot 1659 landvoogd van de Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Don Juan was de beroemdste buitenechtelijke zoon van Filips IV van Spanje. Hij was de enige van de tientallen bastaardkinderen die door Filips IV erkend werd. (nl)
  • フアン・ホセ・デ・アウストリア(Juan José de Austria, 1629年4月7日 - 1679年9月17日)は、スペインの貴族・軍人。スペイン王フェリペ4世の庶子で同じく庶子で同名のドン・フアン・デ・アウストリアと比較されることの多い人物である。 (ja)
  • Don Juan José de Áustria, também conhecido em português por João José de Áustria, ou ainda antigamente por D. João d´Áustria, o Moço (Madrid, 7 de abril de 1629 — Madrid, 17 de setembro de 1679), foi filho bastardo do rei Filipe IV, e o único por ele reconhecido (1642). Sua mãe era a atriz Maria Inés Calderona ou La Calderona. Se dizia que era amante do Duque de Medina de las Torres, poderoso confidente do Rei, o qual acabaria desterrado. Filipe IV a conheceu em 1627 aos 22 anos, casado havia sete; ela teria 16 anos e era atriz no Corral de la Pacheca; entrou mais tarde para o mosteiro de Valfermoso, no vale de Utande, onde morreria abadessa. Durou dois anos a relação. O menino lhe foi retirado e entregue a um humilde casal em Leão, sendo depois levado a Ocaña.Reconhecido Infante e Grão Prior da Ordem de Malta em Leão e Castela (Ordem de São João) com residência em Consuegra de Toledo aos 13 anos, jovem prior de Consuegra, em cujo castelo juntou pequena corte.Recebeu educação principesca em Ocaña; teve influência durante a menoridade do rei Carlos II, seu meio-irmão. Dedicando-se a empresas de caráter militar, distinguir-se-á apenas em Nápoles; terá fracassos em Flandres e em Portugal. Em 1647 foi nomeado Príncipe do Mar, o mais alto cargo da Marinha; em 1648 foi nomeado vice-rei de Nápoles e da Sicília. A intervenção na guerra da Catalunha, de onde foi Vice-rei foi seu segundo êxito: dedicou 1651 e 1652 à pacificação da Catalunha, obtendo a rendição de Barcelona em 11 de outubro de 1652. Vice-reinou ali até 1656. Neste ano de 1656, quando o Arquiduque Leopoldo Guilherme se demitiu como Governador de Flandres, foi nomeado comandante até março de 1659. Manteve a guerra contra a França, em circunstâncias difíceis. Com a colaboração do Marquês de Caracena conseguiu restabelecer a situação, liberando a praça forte de Valenciennes. Derrotou Turenne em Cambrai. Entretanto, em 14 de junho de 1658, sofreu nas Dunas uma derrota grave, perdendo Dunquerque. Pouco depois, foi relevado deste cargo para tarefa ainda mais difícil, a de recuperar Portugal.Em 20 de Fevereiro, de 1661, seu pai emitido-lhe oficialmente o título de "Capitão Geral da Conquista do Reino de Portugal". Desse ano a 1665 passou quatro anos de luta sem êxito na Estremadura, junto à fronteira portuguesa, acusado de preguiçoso… A situação só acabará pela inversa, quando lhe é permitido actuar, invadindo Portugal com grande exército, sofrendo uma pesada derrota na Batalha de Ameixial em 8 de Junho de 1663, desfeita que terminou sua vida militar. Em Setembro de 1665, viu morto o rei, com quem mantinha frias relações nos últimos anos. Liderou então a oposição contra sua madrasta a rainha Mariana. Em 1677 conseguiu expulsar o seu favorito, padre João Everardo Nithard, jesuíta austríaco. Por sete anos haveria dois centros políticos distintos, quase duas cortes, a madrilena, onde a Rainha e seu novo valido Fernando de Valenzuela imperavam, e a de Saragoça, onde D. Juan José se preparava para ocupar o governo. Em 6 de Novembro de 1675, na maioridade aos 14 anos de Carlos II, tudo parecia se encaminhar a uma solução pacifica, pois conseguiu ser nomeado primeiro-ministro - mas tudo ficou no papel, de modo que se sentiu desmoralizado, voltou a Saragoça, preparou um golpe de Estado, voltou com tropa e em 23 de Janeiro de 1677 alcançou enfim ser primeiro-ministro, começando um governo que duraria 31 meses. Logo a 17 de setembro de 1678 foi forçado à Paz de Nimègue com Luís XIV. Perdeu a saúde, retirou-se da corte e viveu confinado em Aragão. Deixou uma filha também bastarda, doña Maria Catarina Isabel de Áustria, que viveu retirada em um mosteiro em Berlemon e morreu em Bruxelas, a 26 de Novembro de 1714. (pt)
  • Хуан Хосе Австрийский, известен также как Дон Хуан Австрийский Младший или Иоанн Иосиф Австрийский (исп. Don Juan José de Austria; 7 апреля 1629, Мадрид — 17 сентября 1679, Мадрид) — испанский полководец и политический деятель, незаконнорожденный сын короля Филиппа IV и актрисы Марии Кальдерон. (ru)
dbo:birthDate
  • 1629-4-7
dbo:birthPlace
dbo:deathDate
  • 1679-9-17
dbo:deathPlace
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  • 774162 (xsd:integer)
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  • 744793552 (xsd:integer)
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  • 1656 (xsd:integer)
dct:description
  • Spanish general (en)
dct:subject
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
rdf:type
rdfs:comment
  • Prinz Juan José de Austria, deutsch Johann Joseph von Habsburg (* 7. April 1629 in Madrid; † 17. September 1679 ebenda) war ein spanischer Heerführer und Staatsmann. (de)
  • Juan José de Austria (Madrid, 7 de abril de 1629 – ibídem, 17 de septiembre de 1679) fue un político y militar español, hijo bastardo del rey Felipe IV y la actriz María Calderón. (es)
  • Juan José d’Autriche, comte d’Oñate, né en 1629 et mort le 17 septembre 1679, est un homme politique et général espagnol qui a notamment été gouverneur des Pays-Bas espagnols de 1656 à 1659 et premier ministre de l’Espagne de 1677 à 1679. (fr)
  • Don Juan José van Oostenrijk (Madrid, 7 april 1629 - aldaar, 17 september 1679) was een Spaans veldheer en staatsman, en van 1656 tot 1659 landvoogd van de Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Don Juan was de beroemdste buitenechtelijke zoon van Filips IV van Spanje. Hij was de enige van de tientallen bastaardkinderen die door Filips IV erkend werd. (nl)
  • フアン・ホセ・デ・アウストリア(Juan José de Austria, 1629年4月7日 - 1679年9月17日)は、スペインの貴族・軍人。スペイン王フェリペ4世の庶子で同じく庶子で同名のドン・フアン・デ・アウストリアと比較されることの多い人物である。 (ja)
  • Хуан Хосе Австрийский, известен также как Дон Хуан Австрийский Младший или Иоанн Иосиф Австрийский (исп. Don Juan José de Austria; 7 апреля 1629, Мадрид — 17 сентября 1679, Мадрид) — испанский полководец и политический деятель, незаконнорожденный сын короля Филиппа IV и актрисы Марии Кальдерон. (ru)
  • His mother was María Calderón (La Calderona), a popular actress, who was forced into a convent shortly after his birth. He was raised in León by a woman of modest circumstances who likely did not know his parentage, though he received "a careful education" at Ocaña (Toledo). In 1642, the King recognized him officially as his son, and John began his life's career as a military representative of his father's interests. (en)
  • Don Juan José de Áustria, também conhecido em português por João José de Áustria, ou ainda antigamente por D. João d´Áustria, o Moço (Madrid, 7 de abril de 1629 — Madrid, 17 de setembro de 1679), foi filho bastardo do rei Filipe IV, e o único por ele reconhecido (1642). Logo a 17 de setembro de 1678 foi forçado à Paz de Nimègue com Luís XIV. Perdeu a saúde, retirou-se da corte e viveu confinado em Aragão. Deixou uma filha também bastarda, doña Maria Catarina Isabel de Áustria, que viveu retirada em um mosteiro em Berlemon e morreu em Bruxelas, a 26 de Novembro de 1714. (pt)
rdfs:label
  • John of Austria the Younger (en)
  • Juan José de Austria (de)
  • Juan José de Austria (es)
  • Juan José d'Autriche (fr)
  • Don Giovanni d'Austria (1629-1679) (it)
  • フアン・ホセ・デ・アウストリア (ja)
  • Juan II van Oostenrijk (nl)
  • João José de Áustria (pt)
  • Хуан Хосе Австрийский (ru)
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  • John (en)
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  • John of Austria the Younger (en)
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