In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields. It keeps account of the gains and losses of energy of the system that are due to changes in its internal state. The internal energy is one of the two cardinal state functions of the state variables of a thermodynamic system.

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• In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields. It keeps account of the gains and losses of energy of the system that are due to changes in its internal state. The internal energy of a system can be changed by transfers of matter and by work and heat transfer. When matter transfer is prevented by impermeable containing walls, the system is said to be closed. Then the first law of thermodynamics states that the increase in internal energy is equal to the total heat added plus the work done on the system by its surroundings. If the containing walls pass neither matter nor energy, the system is said to be isolated and its internal energy cannot change. The first law of thermodynamics may be regarded as establishing the existence of the internal energy. The internal energy is one of the two cardinal state functions of the state variables of a thermodynamic system. (en)
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• m2*kg/s2
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• Internal energy
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• U
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• Derivation of dU in terms of dT and dP
• Derivation of dU in terms of dT and dV
• Proof of pressure independence for an ideal gas
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• In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields. It keeps account of the gains and losses of energy of the system that are due to changes in its internal state. The internal energy is one of the two cardinal state functions of the state variables of a thermodynamic system. (en)
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• Internal energy (en)
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