The Indonesian–Malaysian confrontation or Borneo confrontation (also known by its Indonesian/Malay name, Konfrontasi) was a violent conflict from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya (now West Malaysia), Singapore and the crown colony/British protectorates of North Borneo and Sarawak (collectively known as British Borneo, now East Malaysia) in September 1963. Important precursors to the conflict included Indonesia's policy of confrontation against Netherlands New Guinea from March–August 1962 and the Brunei Revolt in December 1962.

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dbo:abstract
  • The Indonesian–Malaysian confrontation or Borneo confrontation (also known by its Indonesian/Malay name, Konfrontasi) was a violent conflict from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya (now West Malaysia), Singapore and the crown colony/British protectorates of North Borneo and Sarawak (collectively known as British Borneo, now East Malaysia) in September 1963. Important precursors to the conflict included Indonesia's policy of confrontation against Netherlands New Guinea from March–August 1962 and the Brunei Revolt in December 1962. The confrontation was an undeclared war with most of the action occurring in the border area between Indonesia and East Malaysia on the island of Borneo (known as Kalimantan in Indonesia). The conflict was characterised by restrained and isolated ground combat, set within tactics of low-level brinkmanship. Combat was usually conducted by company- or platoon-sized operations on either side of the border. Indonesia's campaign of infiltrations into Borneo sought to exploit the ethnic and religious diversity in Sabah and Sarawak compared to that of Malaya and Singapore, with the intent of unraveling the proposed state of Malaysia. The challenging jungle terrain of Borneo and lack of roads straddling the Malaysia/Indonesia border forced both Indonesian and Commonwealth forces to conduct long foot patrols. Both sides relied on light infantry operations and air transport, although Commonwealth forces enjoyed the advantage of better helicopter deployment and resupply to forward operating bases. Rivers were also used as a method of transport and infiltration. Although combat operations were primarily conducted by ground forces, aerial forces played a vital support role and naval forces ensured the security of the sea flanks. The British provided most of the defensive effort, although Malaysian forces steadily increased their contributions, and there were periodic contributions from Australian and New Zealand forces within the combined Far East Strategic Reserve stationed then in West Malaysia and Singapore. Initial Indonesian attacks into East Malaysia relied heavily on local volunteers trained by the Indonesian Army. With the passage of time infiltration forces became more organised with the inclusion of a larger component of Indonesian forces. To deter and disrupt Indonesia's growing campaign of infiltrations, the British responded in 1964 by launching their own covert operations into Indonesian Kalimantan under the code name Operation Claret. Coinciding with Sukarno announcing a 'year of dangerous living' and the 1964 race riots in Singapore, Indonesia launched an expanded campaign of operations into West Malaysia on 17 August 1964, albeit without military success. A build-up of Indonesian forces on the Kalimantan border in December 1964 saw the UK commit significant forces from the UK based Army Strategic Command and Australia and New Zealand deployed roulement combat forces from West Malaysia to Borneo in 1965–66. The intensity of the conflict began to subside following the events of the 30 September Movement and Suharto's rise to power. A new round of peace negotiations between Indonesia and Malaysia began in May 1966 and a final peace agreement was signed on 11 August 1966 with Indonesia formally recognising Malaysia. (en)
  • المواجهة الإندونيسية الماليزية(بالإنجليزية: Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation) هي مواجهات عسكرية بين إندونسيا و ماليزيا وكنت مابين 1962 إلى 1966 . (ar)
  • La Confrontation indonésio-malaisienne (appelée Konfrontasi en indonésien) opposa de 1962 à 1966 la Malaisie, soutenue par les Britanniques, à l'Indonésie sur le statut de la partie Nord de l'île de Bornéo, c'est-à-dire le sultanat du Brunei et les États malaisiens de Sabah et Sarawak. Singapour a fait partie de la Fédération de Malaisie de 1963 à 1965. (fr)
  • La Confrontación Indonesio–Malaya (conocida también como Konfrontasi en indonesio y malayo) fue una guerra no declarada en la isla de Borneo, entre Malasia (con respaldo británico) e Indonesia, entre 1962-1966. El origen del conflicto radica en los intentos de Indonesia a desestabilizar la nueva Federación de Malasia, que entró en funciones en 1963. Malasia había ganado su independencia de Gran Bretaña en 1957 y su líder, Tunku Abdul Rahman, fue el motor primario detrás de la federación de los estados de Malasia, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunéi, y Singapur en la Federación de Malasia. (es)
  • Die Konfrontasi (indonesisch/malaysisch für Konfrontation) war ein Konflikt zwischen Indonesien und Malaysia, der von 1963 bis 1966 dauerte. Auslöser des Konfliktes war die Gründung des Staates Malaysia im Jahr 1963, welche vom damaligen indonesischen Präsidenten Sukarno nicht hingenommen wurde. Demgegenüber standen die Staaten des Commonwealth, insbesondere das Vereinigte Königreich, Australien und Neuseeland unter Berufung auf das Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement dem jungen Staat Malaysia militärisch bei. Das Ende der Konfrontasi kam 1966, als nach dem Massaker in Indonesien 1965–1966 Suharto nach und nach de facto die Macht in Indonesien übernahm. (de)
  • Il Confronto tra Indonesia e Malesia fra il 1962 e il 1966 fu un'opposizione armata mossa dall'Indonesia alla creazione della Malesia. Essa è nota anche nel linguaggio mali-indonesiano col nome di Konfrontasi. La creazione della Malesia fu l'amalgama della Federazione di Malaya (oggi Malaysia occidentale) con le colonie della corona e protettorati britannici di Sabah e Sarawak (collettivamente conosciute col nome di Borneo britannico, oggi Malaysia orientale) nel settembre del 1963. Il confronto fu una guerra non dichiarata con gran parte delle azioni svoltesi nelle aree di confine tra Indonesia e Malesia orientale sull'isola del Borneo (conosciuta come Kalimantan in Indonesia). Ad ogni modo, Sabah e Sarawak erano etnicamente, religiosamente e politicamente diverse e già vi erano delle opposizioni locali all'unione con la Malesia che l'Indonesia tentò di sfruttare a proprio vantaggio ma con scarso successo. Il terreno nel Borneo era col tempo radicalmente cambiato e vi erano un gran numero di strade di collegamento che entrambi gli schieramenti utilizzarono per le operazioni di fanteria leggera e per il trasporto aereo, anche se vennero sfruttati anche i fiumi. Non vi fu l'uso offensivo degli aerei. Le forze armate britanniche e malesi diedero prova del maggior impegno di uomini e risorse mentre altre nazioni (Australia e Nuova Zelanda) furono perlopiù tenute come riserva nella Malesia occidentale. L'iniziale attacco indonesiano alla Malesia orientale venne portato avanti in gran parte dai volontari locali addestrati dall'esercito indonesiano. La principale forza militare impegnata nell'area fu invece quella inglese che giocò un ruolo fondamentale nello scontro, anche se è ad ogni modo risaputo che la Gran Bretagna appoggiasse la Malesia per estendere la propria influenza nell'area. Questa pianificazione delle operazioni portò alla maggiore, l'Operazione Claret, nel 1965 alla quale gli indonesiani poterono opporsi solo in minima parte. Dall'agosto del 1966, a seguito della salita al potere del nuovo presidente indonesiano Suharto, venne raggiunto un accordo di pace secondo il quale finalmente l'Indonesia accettò l'esistenza della Malesia. (it)
  • De Konfrontasi betreft de niet-officieel verklaarde oorlog - "confrontatie" - van 1962 tot 1966 tussen de republiek Indonesië en de nieuwe, Brits gesteunde federatie Maleisië en het koninkrijk Brunei. De federatie Maleisië werd gecreëerd in 1963. Indonesië had in 1945 eenzijdig de onafhankelijkheid uitgeroepen en in werd echter pas 1949 door Nederland erkend. De bevolking en de taal van Maleisië en Indonesië lijken sterk op elkaar. Maleisië en Indonesië grenzen aan elkaar in Borneo. Verder ging het in Indonesië in deze tijd slecht met de economie en trachtte de Indonesische president Soekarno de aandacht daarvan af te leiden. Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea - inmiddels in Indonesische handen - kon deze rol niet langer vervullen. Hij ging daarom al snel de confrontatie aan met Maleisië en het koninkrijk Brunei, wat hij (in het Nederlands) verwoordde met: "verpletter Maleisië!". In 1962 vond er een opstand plaats in Brunei. Door Indonesië gesteunde rebellen vielen diverse plaatsen aan en probeerden gijzelaars gevangen te nemen. De opstand werd snel onderdrukt door Britse troepen, waaronder Gurkha's. Meerdere aanvallen op Maleisisch grondgebied vonden plaats tot 1966. alle aanvallen werden afgeslagen door Maleisië en haar koloniale bondgenoten, Groot-Brittannië (Verenigd Koninkrijk), Australië en Nieuw-Zeeland). In 1965 waren de interne spanningen in Indonesië hoog opgelopen. De PKI was steeds machtiger geworden. Er volgde een bijzonder gewelddadige staatsgreep. Daarin werd Soekarno afgezet door generaal Soeharto en vervolgens werden de communisten grondig opgeruimd. De Indonesische inzet en interesse werd onder het nieuwe prowesterse bewind snel minder, waarna het conflict feitelijk eindigde. Op 28 mei 1966 verklaarden beide regeringen op een conferentie in Bangkok dat het conflict voorbij was, maar het was op dat moment niet duidelijk of Soeharto, dan wel Soekarno nu de macht had in Jakarta. In juli was het duidelijk dat Soekarno's tijd voorgoed voorbij. Op 11 augustus werd er een vredesverdrag getekend dat twee dagen later werd geratificeerd. (nl)
  • O confronto da Indonésia-Malásia (também conhecido como Konfrontasi em indonésio e malaio) foi uma guerra não declarada sobre o futuro da ilha de Bornéu, entre a Malásia e a Indonésia com o apoio britânico entre 1962-1966. A origem do conflito está na tentativa da Indonésia para desestabilizar a nova Federação da Malásia, que surgiu em 1963. A Malásia ganhou independência da Grã-Bretanha em 1957 e seu líder, Tunku Abdul Rahman, foi a força motriz por trás da federação de Estados da Malásia, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Singapura na Federação da Malásia. Tratou-se da oposição política e armada da Indonésia para a criação da Malásia. No entanto, Sabah e Sarawak eram etnicamente, religiosamente e politicamente diversificadas e havia alguma oposição local de ingressar na Malásia que a Indonésia tentou explorar, com muito pouco sucesso. O terreno em Bornéu era desafiador e havia muito poucas estradas, ambos os lados contaram com operações de infantaria leve e transportes aéreos, embora os rios também fossem utilizados. Não havia quase nenhum recurso de poder aéreo ofensivo. Ataques iniciais da Indonésia na Malásia Oriental dependiam muito de voluntários locais treinados pelo Exército indonésio. As principais forças militares de apoio aa Malásia eram britânicas e, inicialmente, suas atividades foram fundamentamente baixas. No entanto, os britânicos reagiram ao aumento da atividade da Indonésia, expandindo as suas próprias. Isto incluiu, a partir de 1965, as operações encobertas em Kalimantan indonésia sob o nome de código Operação Claret. Em 1965, houve várias operações da Indonésia na Malásia Ocidental, embora sem sucesso militar. Em agosto de 1966, após a ascensão do presidente indonésio Suharto ao poder, um acordo de paz, finalmente, entrou em vigor e a Indonésia aceitou a existência da Malásia. (pt)
  • Konfrontacja indonezyjsko-malezyjska (ind. oraz mal. Konfrontasi)to zbrojny konflikt o przyszłość wyspy Borneo prowadzony w latach 1963-1966 pomiędzy wspieraną przez Wielką Brytanię Malezją a Indonezją. (pl)
  • Индонезийско-малайзийская конфронтация 1963—1966 годов — малоинтенсивный вооружённый конфликт между Индонезией с одной стороны и Федерацией Малайзии, Великобританией, Австралией и Новой Зеландией с другой стороны из-за создания государства Малайзия и включения в его состав британских владений на северной части острова Калимантан. (ru)
dbo:causalties
  • * 114 killed
  • * 181 wounded
dbo:combatant
  • *
  • ----
  • Supported by:
  • (material aid)
  • Aligned parties:
  • Brunei People's Party
  • Commonwealth of Nations
  • North Kalimantan Communist Party
  • North Kalimantan National Army (NKNA)
  • North Kalimantan People's Army (NKPA)
  • Sarawak People's Guerilla Force (SPGF)
dbo:commander
dbo:date
  • 1963-01-20 (xsd:date)
dbo:isPartOfMilitaryConflict
dbo:place
dbo:result
  • * Indonesia accepts formation of Malaysia.
  • *Sukarnoreplaced bySuharto
  • Commonwealthvictory:
dbo:thumbnail
dbo:wikiPageExternalLink
dbo:wikiPageID
  • 206387 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageRevisionID
  • 742884644 (xsd:integer)
dbp:casualties
  • * 590 killed * 222 wounded
  • * Civilian casualties * 36 killed * 53 wounded * 4 taken prisoner
dbp:casus
  • Formation of Malaysia
dbp:colwidth
  • 20 (xsd:integer)
dbp:title
  • Links to related articles
dct:subject
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
rdf:type
rdfs:comment
  • المواجهة الإندونيسية الماليزية(بالإنجليزية: Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation) هي مواجهات عسكرية بين إندونسيا و ماليزيا وكنت مابين 1962 إلى 1966 . (ar)
  • La Confrontation indonésio-malaisienne (appelée Konfrontasi en indonésien) opposa de 1962 à 1966 la Malaisie, soutenue par les Britanniques, à l'Indonésie sur le statut de la partie Nord de l'île de Bornéo, c'est-à-dire le sultanat du Brunei et les États malaisiens de Sabah et Sarawak. Singapour a fait partie de la Fédération de Malaisie de 1963 à 1965. (fr)
  • La Confrontación Indonesio–Malaya (conocida también como Konfrontasi en indonesio y malayo) fue una guerra no declarada en la isla de Borneo, entre Malasia (con respaldo británico) e Indonesia, entre 1962-1966. El origen del conflicto radica en los intentos de Indonesia a desestabilizar la nueva Federación de Malasia, que entró en funciones en 1963. Malasia había ganado su independencia de Gran Bretaña en 1957 y su líder, Tunku Abdul Rahman, fue el motor primario detrás de la federación de los estados de Malasia, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunéi, y Singapur en la Federación de Malasia. (es)
  • Die Konfrontasi (indonesisch/malaysisch für Konfrontation) war ein Konflikt zwischen Indonesien und Malaysia, der von 1963 bis 1966 dauerte. Auslöser des Konfliktes war die Gründung des Staates Malaysia im Jahr 1963, welche vom damaligen indonesischen Präsidenten Sukarno nicht hingenommen wurde. Demgegenüber standen die Staaten des Commonwealth, insbesondere das Vereinigte Königreich, Australien und Neuseeland unter Berufung auf das Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement dem jungen Staat Malaysia militärisch bei. Das Ende der Konfrontasi kam 1966, als nach dem Massaker in Indonesien 1965–1966 Suharto nach und nach de facto die Macht in Indonesien übernahm. (de)
  • Konfrontacja indonezyjsko-malezyjska (ind. oraz mal. Konfrontasi)to zbrojny konflikt o przyszłość wyspy Borneo prowadzony w latach 1963-1966 pomiędzy wspieraną przez Wielką Brytanię Malezją a Indonezją. (pl)
  • Индонезийско-малайзийская конфронтация 1963—1966 годов — малоинтенсивный вооружённый конфликт между Индонезией с одной стороны и Федерацией Малайзии, Великобританией, Австралией и Новой Зеландией с другой стороны из-за создания государства Малайзия и включения в его состав британских владений на северной части острова Калимантан. (ru)
  • The Indonesian–Malaysian confrontation or Borneo confrontation (also known by its Indonesian/Malay name, Konfrontasi) was a violent conflict from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya (now West Malaysia), Singapore and the crown colony/British protectorates of North Borneo and Sarawak (collectively known as British Borneo, now East Malaysia) in September 1963. Important precursors to the conflict included Indonesia's policy of confrontation against Netherlands New Guinea from March–August 1962 and the Brunei Revolt in December 1962. (en)
  • Il Confronto tra Indonesia e Malesia fra il 1962 e il 1966 fu un'opposizione armata mossa dall'Indonesia alla creazione della Malesia. Essa è nota anche nel linguaggio mali-indonesiano col nome di Konfrontasi. La creazione della Malesia fu l'amalgama della Federazione di Malaya (oggi Malaysia occidentale) con le colonie della corona e protettorati britannici di Sabah e Sarawak (collettivamente conosciute col nome di Borneo britannico, oggi Malaysia orientale) nel settembre del 1963. (it)
  • De Konfrontasi betreft de niet-officieel verklaarde oorlog - "confrontatie" - van 1962 tot 1966 tussen de republiek Indonesië en de nieuwe, Brits gesteunde federatie Maleisië en het koninkrijk Brunei. De federatie Maleisië werd gecreëerd in 1963. Indonesië had in 1945 eenzijdig de onafhankelijkheid uitgeroepen en in werd echter pas 1949 door Nederland erkend. De bevolking en de taal van Maleisië en Indonesië lijken sterk op elkaar. Maleisië en Indonesië grenzen aan elkaar in Borneo. Verder ging het in Indonesië in deze tijd slecht met de economie en trachtte de Indonesische president Soekarno de aandacht daarvan af te leiden. Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea - inmiddels in Indonesische handen - kon deze rol niet langer vervullen. Hij ging daarom al snel de confrontatie aan met Maleisië en het konin (nl)
  • O confronto da Indonésia-Malásia (também conhecido como Konfrontasi em indonésio e malaio) foi uma guerra não declarada sobre o futuro da ilha de Bornéu, entre a Malásia e a Indonésia com o apoio britânico entre 1962-1966. A origem do conflito está na tentativa da Indonésia para desestabilizar a nova Federação da Malásia, que surgiu em 1963. A Malásia ganhou independência da Grã-Bretanha em 1957 e seu líder, Tunku Abdul Rahman, foi a força motriz por trás da federação de Estados da Malásia, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Singapura na Federação da Malásia. (pt)
rdfs:label
  • Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation (en)
  • المواجهة الإندونيسية الماليزية (ar)
  • Konfrontasi (de)
  • Confrontación indonesio-malaya (es)
  • Konfrontasi (fr)
  • Confronto tra Indonesia e Malesia (it)
  • Konfrontasi (nl)
  • Konfrontacja indonezyjsko-malezyjska (pl)
  • Confronto Indonésia-Malásia (pt)
  • Индонезийско-малайзийская конфронтация (ru)
rdfs:seeAlso
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foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
foaf:name
  • Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation (en)
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