Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture). It was a symbolic acknowledgement to the lord that the vassal was, literally, his man (homme). The oath known as "fealty" implied lesser obligations than did "homage". Further, one could swear "fealty" to many different overlords with respect to different land holdings, but "homage" could only be performed to a single liege, as one could not be "his man", i.e., committed to military service, to more than one "liege lord". Similar concept is Islamic oath Bay'ah.

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  • Die Huldigung (lat. Homagium) war im mittelalterlichen Lehnswesen ein ritualisiertes Treueversprechen. (de)
  • El homenaje, palabra proveniente del provenzal homenatge, en el contexto del feudalismo (la Edad Media y su extensión en determinados usos durante el Antiguo Régimen) era el primer paso de la ceremonia de homenaje e investidura por la que se establecía un vasallaje. También refiere a la ceremonia completa e, incluso, a los propios conceptos de vasallaje e infeudación y, por extensión de sentido, a cualquier juramento que implicara una obligación de cumplimiento, o a los actos de sumisión, veneración y respeto. Se utiliza con el verbo rendir («rendir homenaje» u «homenajear») y con la expresión pleito homenaje. (es)
  • Dans le système féodal, l’hommage est l’établissement ou le renouvellement d'une convention de vassalité qui interdisait toute rivalité entre deux hommes libres. La cérémonie devait en général avoir lieu au manoir seigneurial du futur suzerain en présence de plusieurs témoins. Elle rappelait publiquement l'existence d'une relation de féodalité entre deux familles, voire deux lignages, représentés par leurs chefs qui pouvaient être une femme. Bien que typiquement hiérarchique, le contrat de vassalité entre les deux groupes les place dans un rapport de complémentarité dont les conditions ne sont pas déséquilibrées. Le plus simple vassal est le chevalier dont la fonction est de servir la justice et la paix. En rendant hommage au suzerain, le vassal s'interdit tout acte d'hostilité contre lui, et promet de lui apporter aide et conseil. En contrepartie, le seigneur lui assure la possession paisible de bénéfices, généralement une terre, qui est alors appelée un fief, dont le revenu lui permet de vivre noblement et de s'équiper pour la guerre. En cas d'infidélité du vassal, après trois proclamations l'invitant à venir faire amende honorable au manoir où il avait juré sa foi, le suzerain peut reprendre par la force et confisquer le fief qu'il avait donné. Le cérémonial de l'hommage est très précis ; il se place dans la tradition des actes d'allégeance entre chefs qui existent chez tous les peuples de l'Antiquité, y compris en Gaule. Les fondements religieux sont renouvelés avec les Évangiles : c'est d'abord la bonne foi, ensuite l'idée d'une justice qui met la force au service du pauvre et de l'orphelin, qui inspirent l'engagement. (fr)
  • Nell'ambito del complesso sistema di rapporti di signoria-vassallaggio proprio del sistema feudale in corso nell'Europa medievale, l'atto di omaggio (latino: homagium) era un formale atto di sottomissione con il quale un signore feudale riconosceva la superiorità di un altro nobile. L'etimologia testimonia la natura di tale atto: il termine deriva infatti da homo ("uomo") e agere ("condurre") ed indicava una cerimonia durante la quale il nobile si dichiarava uomo fedele del suo signore e pronto a farsi condurre da questo. Necessario al momento della cerimonia di investitura con cui era costituito un rapporto di vassallaggio, l'omaggio poteva essere dato e richiesto anche quando non vi era un rapporto diretto di superiorità gerarchica, tra signorie di pari rango o addirittura da un signore di rango inferiore ad uno di rango superiore per indicare una supremazia effettiva, spesso ottenuta con l'azione militare. (it)
  • Hołd lenny (łac. homagium) – ceremonia uroczystego zawarcia kontraktu lennego. Podczas niej następowało homagium: wasal klękał przed swoim seniorem i składał mu uroczystą przysięgę wierności, zobowiązując się do niesienia pomocy swojemu seniorowi w radzie (łac. consilium) i ofiarując pomoc zbrojną (łac. auxilium). Następowała wówczas inwestytura, czyli formalne przekazanie lenna wasalowi. (pl)
  • Homenagem (do provençal omenatge) é uma palavra que define retribuição de honra, agradecimento, tornar público com um ato de gratidão algum favor que foi prestado por alguém. O ato de homenagear é antigo: desde os primórdios, as civilizações tribais pré-históricas homenageavam, com rituais seus guerreiros e os seus deuses. A homenagem pode ser com uma menção honrosa, com um prémio de reconhecimento ou simplesmente através de reconhecimento pessoal. (pt)
  • Омма́ж (фр. hommage), или гоминиум (лат. homagium или hominium) — в феодальную эпоху одна из церемоний символического характера; присяга, оформлявшая заключение вассального договора в Западной Европе Средних веков; заключавшаяся в том, что будущий вассал, безоружный, опустившись на одно колено (два колена преклоняли только рабы и крепостные) и с непокрытой головой, вкладывал соединённые ладони в руки сюзерена с просьбой принять его в вассалы. Сюзерен поднимал его, и они обменивались поцелуем. С VIII века оммаж стал сочетаться с клятвой верности — фуа. До XI века связь, устанавливавшаяся между сеньором и вассалом в результате оммажа и фуа, носила преимущественно личный характер, впоследствии обе церемонии стали сопровождаться, как правило, инвеститурой — передачей сеньором вассалу земельного феода (лена). (ru)
  • Hommage (Oudfrans: homage; Latijn: homagium) is een ceremonie uit de middeleeuwse feodaliteit waarbij de vazal zich door een ritueel publiekelijk als man van zijn heer presenteerde. Voor de hommage in de moderne Nederlandse staat zie inhuldiging. (nl)
  • Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture). It was a symbolic acknowledgement to the lord that the vassal was, literally, his man (homme). The oath known as "fealty" implied lesser obligations than did "homage". Further, one could swear "fealty" to many different overlords with respect to different land holdings, but "homage" could only be performed to a single liege, as one could not be "his man", i.e., committed to military service, to more than one "liege lord". Similar concept is Islamic oath Bay'ah. There have been some interesting conflicts about obligations of homage in history. For example, the Angevin monarchs of England were sovereign in England, i.e., they had no duty of homage regarding those holdings; but they were not sovereign regarding their French holdings. So Henry II was king of England, but he was merely Duke of the Normans and Angevins and Lord of Aquitaine. The Capetian kings in Paris, though weak militarily, claimed a right of homage. The usual oath was therefore modified by Henry to add the qualification "for the lands I hold overseas." The implication was that no "knights service" was owed for the conquered English lands. After King John was forced to surrender Normandy to France in 1204, English magnates with holdings on both sides of the Channel were faced with conflict. John still expected to recover his ancestral lands, and those English lords who held lands in Normandy would have to choose sides. Many were forced to abandon their continental holdings. Two of the most powerful magnates, Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester and William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, negotiated an arrangement with the French king that if John had not recovered Normandy in a year-and-a-day, they would do homage to Philip. At first that seemed to satisfy John, but eventually, as a price for making peace with the French king to keep his lands, the Earl Marshall fell out of favour with John. The conflict between the French monarchs and the Angevin kings of England continued through the 13th century. When Edward I was asked to provide military service to Philip III in his war with Aragon in 1285, Edward made preparations to provide service from Gascony (but not England – he had not done "homage", and thus owed no service to France for the English lands). Edward's Gascon subjects did not want to go to war with their southern neighbours on behalf of France, and they undoubtedly appealed to Edward that as a sovereign, he owed the French King no service at all. A truce was arranged, however, before Edward had to decide what to do. But when Phillip III died, and his son Philip IV ascended the French throne in 1286, Edward dutifully but reluctantly performed "homage" for the sake of peace. In doing so, Edward added yet another qualification – that the duty owed was "according to the terms of the peace made between our ancestors". (en)
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rdfs:comment
  • Die Huldigung (lat. Homagium) war im mittelalterlichen Lehnswesen ein ritualisiertes Treueversprechen. (de)
  • Hołd lenny (łac. homagium) – ceremonia uroczystego zawarcia kontraktu lennego. Podczas niej następowało homagium: wasal klękał przed swoim seniorem i składał mu uroczystą przysięgę wierności, zobowiązując się do niesienia pomocy swojemu seniorowi w radzie (łac. consilium) i ofiarując pomoc zbrojną (łac. auxilium). Następowała wówczas inwestytura, czyli formalne przekazanie lenna wasalowi. (pl)
  • Homenagem (do provençal omenatge) é uma palavra que define retribuição de honra, agradecimento, tornar público com um ato de gratidão algum favor que foi prestado por alguém. O ato de homenagear é antigo: desde os primórdios, as civilizações tribais pré-históricas homenageavam, com rituais seus guerreiros e os seus deuses. A homenagem pode ser com uma menção honrosa, com um prémio de reconhecimento ou simplesmente através de reconhecimento pessoal. (pt)
  • Hommage (Oudfrans: homage; Latijn: homagium) is een ceremonie uit de middeleeuwse feodaliteit waarbij de vazal zich door een ritueel publiekelijk als man van zijn heer presenteerde. Voor de hommage in de moderne Nederlandse staat zie inhuldiging. (nl)
  • El homenaje, palabra proveniente del provenzal homenatge, en el contexto del feudalismo (la Edad Media y su extensión en determinados usos durante el Antiguo Régimen) era el primer paso de la ceremonia de homenaje e investidura por la que se establecía un vasallaje. También refiere a la ceremonia completa e, incluso, a los propios conceptos de vasallaje e infeudación y, por extensión de sentido, a cualquier juramento que implicara una obligación de cumplimiento, o a los actos de sumisión, veneración y respeto. (es)
  • Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture). It was a symbolic acknowledgement to the lord that the vassal was, literally, his man (homme). The oath known as "fealty" implied lesser obligations than did "homage". Further, one could swear "fealty" to many different overlords with respect to different land holdings, but "homage" could only be performed to a single liege, as one could not be "his man", i.e., committed to military service, to more than one "liege lord". Similar concept is Islamic oath Bay'ah. (en)
  • Dans le système féodal, l’hommage est l’établissement ou le renouvellement d'une convention de vassalité qui interdisait toute rivalité entre deux hommes libres. La cérémonie devait en général avoir lieu au manoir seigneurial du futur suzerain en présence de plusieurs témoins. Elle rappelait publiquement l'existence d'une relation de féodalité entre deux familles, voire deux lignages, représentés par leurs chefs qui pouvaient être une femme. Bien que typiquement hiérarchique, le contrat de vassalité entre les deux groupes les place dans un rapport de complémentarité dont les conditions ne sont pas déséquilibrées. (fr)
  • Nell'ambito del complesso sistema di rapporti di signoria-vassallaggio proprio del sistema feudale in corso nell'Europa medievale, l'atto di omaggio (latino: homagium) era un formale atto di sottomissione con il quale un signore feudale riconosceva la superiorità di un altro nobile. L'etimologia testimonia la natura di tale atto: il termine deriva infatti da homo ("uomo") e agere ("condurre") ed indicava una cerimonia durante la quale il nobile si dichiarava uomo fedele del suo signore e pronto a farsi condurre da questo. (it)
  • Омма́ж (фр. hommage), или гоминиум (лат. homagium или hominium) — в феодальную эпоху одна из церемоний символического характера; присяга, оформлявшая заключение вассального договора в Западной Европе Средних веков; заключавшаяся в том, что будущий вассал, безоружный, опустившись на одно колено (два колена преклоняли только рабы и крепостные) и с непокрытой головой, вкладывал соединённые ладони в руки сюзерена с просьбой принять его в вассалы. Сюзерен поднимал его, и они обменивались поцелуем. С VIII века оммаж стал сочетаться с клятвой верности — фуа. (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Huldigung (de)
  • Homenaje (es)
  • Hommage féodal (fr)
  • Omaggio feudale (it)
  • Homage (feudal) (en)
  • Hołd lenny (pl)
  • Hommage (Middeleeuwen) (nl)
  • Homenagem (pt)
  • Оммаж (ru)
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