Hans Knappertsbusch (12 March 1888 – 25 October 1965) was a German conductor, best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss as well as his unique public persona and conducting style. To this day, his interpretations of the works of Richard Wagner are regarded by many as among the best of the 20th century.

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  • Hans Knappertsbusch (* 12. März 1888 in Elberfeld (heute: Wuppertal); † 25. Oktober 1965 in München) war ein deutscher Dirigent. (de)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (12 de marzo de 1888 - 25 de octubre de 1965) fue un director de orquesta alemán nacido en Elberfeld (actualmente Wuppertal), que ha alcanzado reconocimiento internacional por sus interpretaciones de la música de Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner y Richard Strauss. Knappertsbusch estudió filosofía en la Universidad de Bonn y dirección de orquesta en el conservatorio de Colonia, con Steinbach. Durante algunos veranos asistió a Siegfried Wagner y a Hans Richter en el Festival de Bayreuth. Empezó su carrera como director de orquesta en su Elberfeld natal (1913-1918), Leipzig (1918-1919) y Dessau (1919-1922). Cuando Bruno Walter dejó Múnich para ir a Nueva York, Knappertsbusch le sucedió como director general musical de la Ópera Estatal de Baviera (Bayerische Staatsoper). Desató las iras de Joseph Goebbels al preguntar en Holanda a un diplomático alemán si era un Muss-Nazi (es decir, alguien afiliado al partido Nacionalsocialista para progresar profesionalmente): como resultado, su contrato con la Ópera de Múnich fue cancelado. Al final de los años treinta fue a Viena a dirigir la orquesta de la Wiener Staatsoper, ignorando la política nazi de que los artistas alemanes no trabajaran en Austria. Simultáneamente se convirtió en uno de los artistas emergentes del Festival de Salzburgo. Knappertsbusch continuó dirigiendo en Viena y Salzburgo durante la anexión alemana de Austria. Cuando la Segunda Guerra Mundial terminó, volvió a Munich, pero continuó dirigiendo como director invitado en Viena, así como haciendo apariciones en el Festival de Bayreuth. Raramente participó en giras fuera de los países de habla alemana. Le disgustaban los ensayos largos y fue acusado en alguna ocasión de ser perezoso. Murió en 1965, a los setenta y siete años de edad, antes del advenimiento del disco compacto, lo que no ha impedido que muchas de sus más importantes grabaciones hayan sido reeditadas en CD. Knappertsbusch- conocido como "Kna" - fue siempre uno de los directores favoritos de la Filarmónica de Viena, orquesta que dirigió en Viena, Salzburgo y en alguna gira. (es)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch, né le 12 mars 1888 à Elberfeld et mort le 25 octobre 1965 à Munich, est un chef d'orchestre allemand. (fr)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (12 March 1888 – 25 October 1965) was a German conductor, best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss as well as his unique public persona and conducting style. To this day, his interpretations of the works of Richard Wagner are regarded by many as among the best of the 20th century. Knappertsbusch was born in Elberfeld, today's Wuppertal. He studied philosophy at Bonn University and conducting at the Cologne Conservatory with Fritz Steinbach. For a few summers, he assisted Siegfried Wagner and Hans Richter at Bayreuth. He began his career with conducting jobs in Elberfeld (1913-1918), Leipzig (1918-1919) and Dessau (1919-1922). When Bruno Walter left Munich for New York, Knappertsbusch succeeded him as General Music Director of the Bavarian State Orchestra and the Bavarian State Opera, with a lifelong contract. Knappertsbusch later refused to join the Nazi party. In April 1933, Knappertsbusch, along with Richard Strauss and other prominent German musicians, issued and signed a short statement in the newspaper "Münchner Neueste Nachrichten", titled Protest der Richard-Wagner-Stadt München ("protest of the Richard Wagner city of Munich"), in reaction to Thomas Mann's Leiden und Größe Richard Wagners ("Woes and greatness of Richard Wagner"), a critical but ultimately admiring lecture about the composer. The signatories, who generally held staunchly conservative (although not necessarily National Socialist) world views, considered the text, which was essentially a psychoanalytical treatise on Wagner, as denigrating and indecent. In addition to the Nazi Party's demands for an oath of allegiance shortly thereafter, which applied to all writers and artists in general at that time, their efforts contributed to Mann's decision to never return to Germany until the end of World War II. Knappertsbusch was a highly educated moderate nationalist and never held a NSDAP membership. He had no sympathy for the Nazis, which he viewed as coarse and uncivilised, and was unusually outspoken in his distate for them. He often came into conflict with the authorities, risking his freedom and even his life in the process. For example, he incurred the wrath of Joseph Goebbels by asking a German diplomat in the Netherlands whether he was a "Muss-Nazi" (someone who was forced to join the Nazi Party for career reasons); as a result his Munich contract was revoked and he was temporarily banned from working in Germany. Hitler himself was involved in the decision to dismiss him. However, since there was a shortage of first-class conductors in Germany, a consequence of the Nazis' racial and ideological policies, his banning from work was retracted after a short while. Over the course of the Third Reich's existence, Knappertsbusch made numerous other unveiled insults towards Nazi officials, and only his excellent international reputation and high popularity among the general public saved him from more severe punishments. In 1936, Sir Thomas Beecham invited him to Covent Garden to conduct, but his permit to leave Germany was withheld. In the late 1930s he went to Vienna to conduct at the Wiener Staatsoper, thus ignoring the Nazis' policy of not allowing German artists to work in Austria. At the same time, Knappertsbusch became one of the emerging artists of the Salzburg Festival and continued to appear in Vienna and Salzburg during the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany in 1938. In 1944, he was added to the so-called Gottbegnadeten list (literally "God-gifted list"), which excluded him from military service. Despite his animosity towards the Nazi regime, Knappertsbusch never considered emigrating from his home country, being deeply rooted in German arts and culture. When World War II ended, Knappertsbusch returned to Munich, where he lived and worked for the remainder of his life. He continued to guest conduct in Vienna, as well as to make appearances at the Bayreuth Festival. He conducted the first performances of Der Ring des Nibelungen at the reopening of the Bayreuth Festival in 1951, though only the Götterdämmerung survives. The Parsifal of that year, in which Martha Mödl made her Bayreuth premiere as Kundry, remains among the marquee recordings of that role. Mödl, the preeminent Kundry and Wagner actress of the twentieth century, would go on to sing that role under Knappertsbusch for the rest of the decade. He was one of the favorite conductors of the Wiener Philharmoniker, leading the orchestra in Vienna, Salzburg and on tour abroad, although generally he rarely toured outside the German-speaking world. Knappertsbusch became famous for his interpretations of the works of Ludwig van Beethoven, Anton Bruckner, Johannes Brahms and Richard Strauss, but his greatest legacy is his remarkable treatment of Richard Wagner's works, which he loved most dearly. He is widely considered as one of the greatest Wagner-conductors of all time.Artistically, Knappertsbusch was known for conducting very slowly but intensely, emphasizing beauty, gravitas and dignity over liveliness. His personality was modest and straightforward, at the same time forceful and highly sensitive. He was known for being able to conduct with minimal gesticulation at times, conveying his intentions with simply a look and a few facial expressions. One of his well-known idiosyncratic quirks was his strong dislike for rehearsals, which he avoided whenever he could. Instead, he preferred to rely more on his instinct and spontaneity. He also didn't care much for studio records, which is why there exists only a relatively small number of them. However, numerous live recordings of his performances are available. Knappertsbusch was highly regarded by his musicians and the general public alike, especially in Munich, where he was simply called "Kna" by the residents and became something of a widely recognized cultural icon. On the other hand, he was quick to anger when rehearsing and could be extraordinarily rude to his personnel, especially to his singers, an example being his legendary outburst against Birgit Nilsson. Although sometimes rough on the outside and increasingly unsociable towards the end of his life, he was a humanist at heart - Andreas Novak called him a "ruppigen Humanisten" ( "gruff humanist"). After the war, it became known that Knappertsbusch had helped persecuted musicians during the Nazi era. Knappertsbusch died in Munich in 1965. Many of his recordings, including his historic Decca recordings in stereo, have been re-released on CD. Decca went to Bayreuth in 1951 to record only Parsifal, but with the approval of Wieland Wagner and Knappertsbusch himself, Decca also as an experiment recorded a Ring cycle. John Culshaw, the Decca recording producer, was disappointed with the performances of the first three operas in the tetralogy, but was impressed by the Götterdämmerung and edited up a version of it; but Decca did not release it. His 1951 and 1962 recordings of Parsifal are highly regarded; Bavarian Radio holds a tape of the 1955 Parsifal, but it has not yet been issued. Recordings of live performances of Parsifal from Bayreuth are available from nearly all the intervening years and extending through 1964. (en)
  • ハンス・クナッパーツブッシュ(Hans Knappertsbusch, 1888年3月12日 - 1965年10月25日)は、ドイツの指揮者。ミュンヘンやウィーンで活躍し、第二次世界大戦後に再開されたバイロイト音楽祭を支えた指揮者でもあった。リヒャルト・ワーグナーやアントン・ブルックナーの演奏で有名だった。 193センチの長身でいかつい顔の指揮者で、ドイツや日本では「クナ」(Kna) の愛称で親しまれた。 (ja)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (Elberfeld, 12 maart 1888 - München, 25 oktober 1965) was een Duits dirigent, die bekendstond om zijn uitvoeringen van de muziek van Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner en Richard Strauss. Knappertsbusch studeerde filosofie aan de Universiteit van Bonn en directie aan de Hochschule für Musik in Keulen bij Fritz Steinbach. Hij was een aantal seizoenen assistent bij Siegfried Wagner en Hans Richter bij de Bayreuther Festspiele. Hij was dirigent in Elberfeld (1913-1918), Leipzig (1918-1919) en Dessau (1919-1922). Toen Bruno Walter München verliet voor New York, volgde Knappertsbusch hem op als algemeen directeur en eerste dirigent van het Bayerisches Staatsorchester. Knappertsbusch haalde zich de woede van Joseph Goebbels op de hals door aan een Duitse diplomaat in Nederland te vragen of hij een "Muss-Nazi" was (iemand die zich gedwongen voelde zich bij de Nazi’s aan te sluiten om zijn carrière te bevorderen): als gevolg hiervan werd zijn contract in München ontbonden. Aan het eind van de jaren dertig ging hij naar Wenen om bij de Wiener Staatsoper te dirigeren, en negeerde daarmee de nazi-politiek, die het Duitse artiesten niet toestond om in Oostenrijk te werken. Hij was een van de opkomende artiesten van de Salzburger Festspiele. Knappertsbusch bleef in Wenen en Salzburg dirigeren tijdens de Duitse bezetting van Oostenrijk. Toen de Tweede Wereldoorlog was afgelopen, keerde Knappertsbusch terug naar München, maar bleef gastdirigent in Wenen en dirigeerde ook op de Bayreuther Festspiele. Hij was een van de favoriete dirigenten van het Wiener Philharmoniker. Hij hield niet van lange repetities, en hem werd wel eens verweten dat hij lui zou zijn. Veel van zijn opnamen, inclusief historische Decca-opnamen in stereo, zijn opnieuw op cd uitgebracht. Zijn opnamen uit 1951 en 1962 van Parsifal worden algemeen beschouwd als de referentie voor dit werk. (nl)
  • Ганс Кнаппертсбуш (иногда Ханс Кнаппертсбуш, нем. Hans Knappertsbusch; 12 марта 1888, Эльберфельд — 25 октября 1965, Мюнхен) — немецкий дирижёр. Более всего известен как исполнитель музыки Вагнера, Брукнера и Брамса. (ru)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (12 de março de 1888 - 25 de outubro de 1965) foi um maestro alemão, mais conhecido pelas suas performances de obras de Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner e Richard Strauss. Knappertsbusch nasceu em Elberfeld, atual Wuppertal. Estudou filosofia na Universidade Bonn e condução no Conservatório de Cologna com Fritz Steinbach. Por poucos verões, ele ajudou Siegfried Wagner e Hans Richard em Bayreuth. Ele começou sua carreira como maestro em Elberfeld (1913 - 1918), Leipzig (1918 - 1919) e Dessau (1919 - 1922). Quando Bruno Walter se mudou de Monique para Nova Iorque, Knappertsbusch se tornou o diretor musical da Orquestra do Estado Bávaro. Foi também um dos maestros favoritos da Filarmônica de Viena. (pt)
  • 他在科隆的音乐学院学习,1912年他在那市立剧院任乐队长,这也是他音乐生涯的开始。在慕尼黑他任国家歌剧院指导,后因反对纳粹党而被停职。1938年他出任维也纳国家歌剧院指导。 从 1937年 到 1945年 他指挥维也纳爱乐乐团。 二战后他居住在慕尼黑,经常到拜鲁伊特音乐节上献演。 他的录音很少,代表性的录音有布鲁克纳的第五交响曲,瓦格纳的乐剧。 (zh)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (ur. 12 marca 1888, zm. 25 października 1965) – niemiecki dyrygent, znany przede wszystkim z wykonań dzieł Richarda Wagnera, Antona Brucknera i Richarda Straussa. Jego nazwisko figurowało na Gottbegnadeten-Liste (Lista obdarzonych łaską Bożą w III Rzeszy). Został pochowany na Cmentarzu Bogenhausen w Monachium. (pl)
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  • 1888-3-12
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  • 1965-10-25 (xsd:date)
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  • German musician (en)
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rdfs:comment
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (* 12. März 1888 in Elberfeld (heute: Wuppertal); † 25. Oktober 1965 in München) war ein deutscher Dirigent. (de)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch, né le 12 mars 1888 à Elberfeld et mort le 25 octobre 1965 à Munich, est un chef d'orchestre allemand. (fr)
  • ハンス・クナッパーツブッシュ(Hans Knappertsbusch, 1888年3月12日 - 1965年10月25日)は、ドイツの指揮者。ミュンヘンやウィーンで活躍し、第二次世界大戦後に再開されたバイロイト音楽祭を支えた指揮者でもあった。リヒャルト・ワーグナーやアントン・ブルックナーの演奏で有名だった。 193センチの長身でいかつい顔の指揮者で、ドイツや日本では「クナ」(Kna) の愛称で親しまれた。 (ja)
  • Ганс Кнаппертсбуш (иногда Ханс Кнаппертсбуш, нем. Hans Knappertsbusch; 12 марта 1888, Эльберфельд — 25 октября 1965, Мюнхен) — немецкий дирижёр. Более всего известен как исполнитель музыки Вагнера, Брукнера и Брамса. (ru)
  • 他在科隆的音乐学院学习,1912年他在那市立剧院任乐队长,这也是他音乐生涯的开始。在慕尼黑他任国家歌剧院指导,后因反对纳粹党而被停职。1938年他出任维也纳国家歌剧院指导。 从 1937年 到 1945年 他指挥维也纳爱乐乐团。 二战后他居住在慕尼黑,经常到拜鲁伊特音乐节上献演。 他的录音很少,代表性的录音有布鲁克纳的第五交响曲,瓦格纳的乐剧。 (zh)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (ur. 12 marca 1888, zm. 25 października 1965) – niemiecki dyrygent, znany przede wszystkim z wykonań dzieł Richarda Wagnera, Antona Brucknera i Richarda Straussa. Jego nazwisko figurowało na Gottbegnadeten-Liste (Lista obdarzonych łaską Bożą w III Rzeszy). Został pochowany na Cmentarzu Bogenhausen w Monachium. (pl)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (12 March 1888 – 25 October 1965) was a German conductor, best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss as well as his unique public persona and conducting style. To this day, his interpretations of the works of Richard Wagner are regarded by many as among the best of the 20th century. (en)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (12 de marzo de 1888 - 25 de octubre de 1965) fue un director de orquesta alemán nacido en Elberfeld (actualmente Wuppertal), que ha alcanzado reconocimiento internacional por sus interpretaciones de la música de Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner y Richard Strauss. Cuando Bruno Walter dejó Múnich para ir a Nueva York, Knappertsbusch le sucedió como director general musical de la Ópera Estatal de Baviera (Bayerische Staatsoper). Le disgustaban los ensayos largos y fue acusado en alguna ocasión de ser perezoso. (es)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (Elberfeld, 12 maart 1888 - München, 25 oktober 1965) was een Duits dirigent, die bekendstond om zijn uitvoeringen van de muziek van Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner en Richard Strauss. Toen de Tweede Wereldoorlog was afgelopen, keerde Knappertsbusch terug naar München, maar bleef gastdirigent in Wenen en dirigeerde ook op de Bayreuther Festspiele. Hij was een van de favoriete dirigenten van het Wiener Philharmoniker. Hij hield niet van lange repetities, en hem werd wel eens verweten dat hij lui zou zijn. (nl)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (12 de março de 1888 - 25 de outubro de 1965) foi um maestro alemão, mais conhecido pelas suas performances de obras de Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner e Richard Strauss. Knappertsbusch nasceu em Elberfeld, atual Wuppertal. Estudou filosofia na Universidade Bonn e condução no Conservatório de Cologna com Fritz Steinbach. Por poucos verões, ele ajudou Siegfried Wagner e Hans Richard em Bayreuth. Ele começou sua carreira como maestro em Elberfeld (1913 - 1918), Leipzig (1918 - 1919) e Dessau (1919 - 1922). Quando Bruno Walter se mudou de Monique para Nova Iorque, Knappertsbusch se tornou o diretor musical da Orquestra do Estado Bávaro. (pt)
rdfs:label
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (de)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (en)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (es)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (fr)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (it)
  • ハンス・クナッパーツブッシュ (ja)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (nl)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (pl)
  • Кнаппертсбуш, Ганс (ru)
  • Hans Knappertsbusch (pt)
  • 汉斯·克纳佩茨布施 (zh)
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