The Great Man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of "great men", or heroes; highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill utilized their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact. The theory was popularized in the 1840s by Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle. But in 1860 Herbert Spencer formulated a counter-argument that has remained influential throughout the 20th century to the present: Spencer said that such great men are the products of their societies, and that their actions would be impossible without the social conditions built before their lifetimes. Thus subsequent social history, economic history, and political history have de-emphasized the pri

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  • The Great Man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of "great men", or heroes; highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill utilized their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact. The theory was popularized in the 1840s by Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle. But in 1860 Herbert Spencer formulated a counter-argument that has remained influential throughout the 20th century to the present: Spencer said that such great men are the products of their societies, and that their actions would be impossible without the social conditions built before their lifetimes. Thus subsequent social history, economic history, and political history have de-emphasized the primacy of great men. (en)
  • La théorie du grand homme explique l'histoire par l'impact d'un « grand homme ». Lancée en 1840 par l'écrivain écossais Thomas Carlyle, elle est atténuée en 1860 par un contre-argument d'Herbert Spencer, affirmant que de tels grands hommes sont les produits de leur société et que leurs actions auraient été impossibles en dehors des conditions sociales mises en place avant leur naissance. Herbert Spencer et Léon Tolstoï ont également relativisé[Quand ?] le fait d'attribuer entièrement des événements historiques à des individus. Appliquée aux sociétés humaines, la Loi des grands nombres pose l'interrogation suivante : « nos actions individuelles peuvent-elles être autre chose que la confirmation d'une tendance générale qui nous dépasse ? ». En 1938, Sigmund Freud propose dans Moïse et le monothéisme un modèle de grand homme en les personnes de Goethe, Léonard de Vinci ou Beethoven qui ont des aptitudes à la sublimation. (fr)
  • La teoria del grande uomo è una congettura volta a spiegare la storia come effetto dell'azione dei "grandi uomini" o eroi: soggetti di grande autorevolezza che, grazie al loro carisma, intelligenza e saggezza, o al loro machiavellismo, hanno usato il loro potere in un modo tale da lasciare una decisiva impronta storica. Per esemplificare questa dottrina, uno studioso che vi aderisse cercherebbe probabilmente di illustrare la seconda guerra mondiale concentrandosi sui leader del tempo, Winston Churchill, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Stalin, Hideki Tojo, dalle cui decisioni ed ordini dovrebbe dipendere qualunque evento del grande conflitto. (it)
  • 英雄史觀或是別稱為“天才史觀”。是歷史學觀點中認為歷史都是由偉人、帝王將相等少數精英人士所創造的,否認人民群眾在歷史上所扮演的重要角色,英雄史觀是唯心主義的一種表現。 由於歷史上許多重要的君王、軍事將領或是偉大思想家往往對歷史發展生起了很大的作用,無論中西這種史觀都有存在於各自的歷史著作上。例如:古希臘的盲眼詩人荷馬所撰的《荷馬史詩》把永生的神和凡人雜揉在一塊,即是充斥著英雄主義的代表,所以歷史家柯靈烏(Robin Collingwood)才會認為荷馬的史詩只能稱得算是一部半歷史(Quasi-history)。 那麼,英雄史觀的歷史究竟代表著什麼涵義,社會史家與傳統政治史家有截然不同的看法,著名歷史家彼得‧柏克(Peter Burke)在其著作《製造路易十四》中就明確的指出,路易十四的的霸君形象是被塑造出來的,社會學家高夫曼亦曾經指出,就某方面而言,我們都是人造的,位高權重的國家領袖當然更是如此。 這是一个與歷史或歷史學相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。 (zh)
  • Теория великих людей, теория героя и толпы — концепция, предполагающая, что развитие истории определяется разумом и волей отдельных «великих людей». (ru)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • 英雄史觀或是別稱為“天才史觀”。是歷史學觀點中認為歷史都是由偉人、帝王將相等少數精英人士所創造的,否認人民群眾在歷史上所扮演的重要角色,英雄史觀是唯心主義的一種表現。 由於歷史上許多重要的君王、軍事將領或是偉大思想家往往對歷史發展生起了很大的作用,無論中西這種史觀都有存在於各自的歷史著作上。例如:古希臘的盲眼詩人荷馬所撰的《荷馬史詩》把永生的神和凡人雜揉在一塊,即是充斥著英雄主義的代表,所以歷史家柯靈烏(Robin Collingwood)才會認為荷馬的史詩只能稱得算是一部半歷史(Quasi-history)。 那麼,英雄史觀的歷史究竟代表著什麼涵義,社會史家與傳統政治史家有截然不同的看法,著名歷史家彼得‧柏克(Peter Burke)在其著作《製造路易十四》中就明確的指出,路易十四的的霸君形象是被塑造出來的,社會學家高夫曼亦曾經指出,就某方面而言,我們都是人造的,位高權重的國家領袖當然更是如此。 這是一个與歷史或歷史學相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。 (zh)
  • Теория великих людей, теория героя и толпы — концепция, предполагающая, что развитие истории определяется разумом и волей отдельных «великих людей». (ru)
  • The Great Man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of "great men", or heroes; highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill utilized their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact. The theory was popularized in the 1840s by Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle. But in 1860 Herbert Spencer formulated a counter-argument that has remained influential throughout the 20th century to the present: Spencer said that such great men are the products of their societies, and that their actions would be impossible without the social conditions built before their lifetimes. Thus subsequent social history, economic history, and political history have de-emphasized the pri (en)
  • La teoria del grande uomo è una congettura volta a spiegare la storia come effetto dell'azione dei "grandi uomini" o eroi: soggetti di grande autorevolezza che, grazie al loro carisma, intelligenza e saggezza, o al loro machiavellismo, hanno usato il loro potere in un modo tale da lasciare una decisiva impronta storica. (it)
  • La théorie du grand homme explique l'histoire par l'impact d'un « grand homme ». Lancée en 1840 par l'écrivain écossais Thomas Carlyle, elle est atténuée en 1860 par un contre-argument d'Herbert Spencer, affirmant que de tels grands hommes sont les produits de leur société et que leurs actions auraient été impossibles en dehors des conditions sociales mises en place avant leur naissance. En 1938, Sigmund Freud propose dans Moïse et le monothéisme un modèle de grand homme en les personnes de Goethe, Léonard de Vinci ou Beethoven qui ont des aptitudes à la sublimation. (fr)
rdfs:label
  • Great Man theory (en)
  • Teoria del grande uomo (it)
  • Théorie du grand homme (fr)
  • Теория великих людей (ru)
  • 英雄史觀 (zh)
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