The Gaesatae (Greek Γαισάται) were a group of Gaulish warriors who lived in the Alps near the river Rhône and fought against the Roman Republic in the Battle of Telamon of 225 BC. The Greek historian Polybius says their name meant "mercenaries", though the literal meaning in Gaulish is "Armed with javelins, Spearmen" (from Gaulish *gaison "spear, javelin"), which matches Old Irish gaiscedach "champion, armed person", from gaisced "weapons", itself from gáe "spear, javelin"), and compare quite closely with the medieval Irish fianna, who were small warbands of landless young men operating independently of any kingdom.

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  • Die Gaisaten (lateinisch Gaesati, altgriechisch Γαισάται), auch Gaesaten waren ein gallischer Stamm, der in den Alpen an der Rhône lebte und der gegen Gold Söldnerdienste leistete. Ihr Name leitet sich von keltisch *gaisa-/gaiso (altirisch gae, kymrisch gwayw „Speer“) ab, was den eisernen Wurfspeer der Gallier bezeichnet und mit deutsch Ger verwandt ist. Nach Polybios und Plutarch (Plutarch, Marc. 3,1) und Orosius 4,3,15 bedeutet der Name Gaesaten „Söldner“, was wohl auf die Pseudo-Etymologie aus γάξα („Schatz, Geldsumme“) und ξητείν („suchen“) zurückzuführen ist. Ob sie tatsächlich ein keltischer Stamm waren, wie Strabon (5,1,6 und 10) annimmt, oder eher ein Kriegerorden, vergleichbar mit den aquitanischen soldurii aus caesarianischer Zeit oder der altirischen Fianna, ist nicht mit Sicherheit feststellbar. (de)
  • Les Gésates (latinisé en gaesatii) sont des Gaulois combattant en Italie à l'époque antique. Il pourrait s'agir de mercenaires (Orose, Hist. adv. Paganos, 4, 13, 5.) qui auraient été armés du gaesum, un javelot de fer, propre aux peuples des Alpes (César, B.G., 3, 4, 1.). En effet, au cours des guerres que mène Rome pour la conquête de la plaine du Pô, les Gaulois cisalpins ont reçu des renforts constants provenant de Gaule transalpine (il ne faut pas négliger l'importance de la bataille de Télamon, en –225, au cours de laquelle des contingents de Gaesates chargèrent nus). Strabon, dans sa Géographie, IV, 1, 11 : « les Allobroges entreprirent naguère de nombreuses expéditions avec des armées de plusieurs dizaines de milliers d'hommes ». Cet auteur implique là probablement des départs de mercenaires allobroges, ainsi que des « peuples du bord du Rhône » (les Segovellaunes ?). Le départ à la guerre semble être devenu une tradition chez certains peuples et représentait dans l'Antiquité un moyen personnel d'enrichissement. Ainsi, la pratique du mercenariat est très répandue chez les Celtes et notamment dans le Midi de la Gaule. Plusieurs tombes guerrières découvertes en Isère et en Royans ont fourni des fibules de bronze, identiques à des exemplaires retrouvés à Bologne chez les Boïens cisalpins et datées du premier quart du IVe siècle (cf. A. Bocquet). Tout cela implique la fréquence des expéditions militaires et du mercenariat qui semble ainsi bien implanté chez les peuples rhodaniens. (fr)
  • I Gesati erano una popolazione gallica originaria della valle del Rodano, migrata in Gallia cisalpina nel III secolo a.C., a più riprese. Erano famosi perché combattevano completamente nudi con il solo torque al collo. Nel 225 a.C. i Gesati, guidati da loro due re Concolitano e Aneroesto, figurano, insieme a Boi, Insubri, Taurisci e Taurini, nella coalizione di tribù celtiche che fu sconfitta dai Romani nella Battaglia di Talamone. Plutarco racconta poi in dettaglio di come i Gesati, sotto la guida di Viridomaro, attraversarono le Alpi provenendo dalla valle del Rodano e sollevarono gli Insubri della Gallia cisalpina. Contro di loro mosse il console Marco Claudio Marcello, che li annientò nella battaglia di Clastidium (1º marzo 222 a.C.) È tuttavia possibile che il nome Gesati non indicasse uno specifico popolo ma genericamente un tipo di soldati mercenari (da gaesum, sorta di giavellotto, la loro arma caratteristica). (it)
  • The Gaesatae (Greek Γαισάται) were a group of Gaulish warriors who lived in the Alps near the river Rhône and fought against the Roman Republic in the Battle of Telamon of 225 BC. The Greek historian Polybius says their name meant "mercenaries", though the literal meaning in Gaulish is "Armed with javelins, Spearmen" (from Gaulish *gaison "spear, javelin"), which matches Old Irish gaiscedach "champion, armed person", from gaisced "weapons", itself from gáe "spear, javelin"), and compare quite closely with the medieval Irish fianna, who were small warbands of landless young men operating independently of any kingdom. According to Polybius' account, the Boii and Insubres of Cisalpine Gaul paid the Gaesatae, under their leaders Concolitanus and Aneroëstes, large sums of money to fight against the Romans, in response to the Roman colonisation of the former Gallic territory of Picenum. The Gauls overran and defeated a Roman army on the approach to Rome, but when the consul Lucius Aemilius Papus arrived with his troops, the Gauls followed Aneroëstes' advice to withdraw with their booty. Papus pursued them, and the other consul Gaius Atilius Regulus cut them off at Telamon in Etruria. Polybius describes how the Gaesatae fought at the front, and unlike their Gallic allies who fought in trousers and light cloaks, they went into battle naked, both because of their great confidence and their desire not to get their clothes caught in the brambles. Diodorus Siculus also reports that some Gauls fought naked, trusting in the protection of nature. The appearance of these well-built naked warriors, and the noise of their trumpets and war-cries, intimidated the Romans, but their small shields offered little protection against Roman javelins, and the Gaesatae were driven back and their allies slaughtered. Concolitanus was captured. Aneroëstes escaped with a few followers and took his own life. In 222 BC the Gaesatae were hired again, but the Gallic forces were defeated by the Roman cavalry at Clastidium in the territory of the Insubres. According to Plutarch, in his life of Marcellus, the Gaesatae numbered 30,000 as they crossed the Alps, of whom 10,000 fought at Clastidium. (en)
  • Os Gesetas (em latim: Gaesatae; em grego: Γαισάται) eram guerreiros Gauleses que viviam nos Alpes perto do rio Ródano e que lutaram contra a República Romana na Batalha de Telamão (225 a.C.). O historiador grego Políbio diz-nos que o nome significa "mercenários" assemelhando-se ao antigo irlandês gaiscedach "campeão, pessoa armada", de gaisced "armas", ele próprio de gáe "lança",. (pt)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • Os Gesetas (em latim: Gaesatae; em grego: Γαισάται) eram guerreiros Gauleses que viviam nos Alpes perto do rio Ródano e que lutaram contra a República Romana na Batalha de Telamão (225 a.C.). O historiador grego Políbio diz-nos que o nome significa "mercenários" assemelhando-se ao antigo irlandês gaiscedach "campeão, pessoa armada", de gaisced "armas", ele próprio de gáe "lança",. (pt)
  • Die Gaisaten (lateinisch Gaesati, altgriechisch Γαισάται), auch Gaesaten waren ein gallischer Stamm, der in den Alpen an der Rhône lebte und der gegen Gold Söldnerdienste leistete. Ihr Name leitet sich von keltisch *gaisa-/gaiso (altirisch gae, kymrisch gwayw „Speer“) ab, was den eisernen Wurfspeer der Gallier bezeichnet und mit deutsch Ger verwandt ist. (de)
  • The Gaesatae (Greek Γαισάται) were a group of Gaulish warriors who lived in the Alps near the river Rhône and fought against the Roman Republic in the Battle of Telamon of 225 BC. The Greek historian Polybius says their name meant "mercenaries", though the literal meaning in Gaulish is "Armed with javelins, Spearmen" (from Gaulish *gaison "spear, javelin"), which matches Old Irish gaiscedach "champion, armed person", from gaisced "weapons", itself from gáe "spear, javelin"), and compare quite closely with the medieval Irish fianna, who were small warbands of landless young men operating independently of any kingdom. (en)
  • I Gesati erano una popolazione gallica originaria della valle del Rodano, migrata in Gallia cisalpina nel III secolo a.C., a più riprese. Erano famosi perché combattevano completamente nudi con il solo torque al collo. Nel 225 a.C. i Gesati, guidati da loro due re Concolitano e Aneroesto, figurano, insieme a Boi, Insubri, Taurisci e Taurini, nella coalizione di tribù celtiche che fu sconfitta dai Romani nella Battaglia di Talamone. (it)
  • Les Gésates (latinisé en gaesatii) sont des Gaulois combattant en Italie à l'époque antique. Il pourrait s'agir de mercenaires (Orose, Hist. adv. Paganos, 4, 13, 5.) qui auraient été armés du gaesum, un javelot de fer, propre aux peuples des Alpes (César, B.G., 3, 4, 1.). En effet, au cours des guerres que mène Rome pour la conquête de la plaine du Pô, les Gaulois cisalpins ont reçu des renforts constants provenant de Gaule transalpine (il ne faut pas négliger l'importance de la bataille de Télamon, en –225, au cours de laquelle des contingents de Gaesates chargèrent nus). (fr)
rdfs:label
  • Gaesati (de)
  • Gaesatae (en)
  • Gésates (fr)
  • Gesati (it)
  • Gesetas (pt)
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