Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin was the son of the Royal Prussian Rittmeister Hermann von Kleist (1849–1913) and his wife Elisabeth (Lili) (1863–1945). Born in Dubberow (now Dobrowo, Poland), near Belgard, Pomerania, Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin supported the national-conservative German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei). As a conservative, he supported the idea of monarchy and Christian ideals, shown in part through his membership of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg), to which he was admitted as a Knight of Honour in 1922 and in which he was promoted to Knight of Justice in 1935. He was a staunch, active opponent of Nazism even before Hitler came to power in 1933. He ended up being arrested as a result in May and June of that year, although he was never held

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dbo:abstract
  • Ewald Albert Friedrich Karl Leopold Arnold von Kleist-Schmenzin (* 22. März 1890 auf Gut Groß-Dubberow, Landkreis Belgard (Persante), Pommern; † 9. April 1945 in Berlin-Plötzensee) war ein deutscher konservativer Politiker. Er wurde im Rahmen nationalsozialistischer Verfolgung nach dem 20. Juli 1944 hingerichtet. (de)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin (22 de marzo de 1890 - 9 de abril de 1945) fue un noble alemán, abogado, político conservador y terrateniente en Pomerania, al noreste de Berlín. Fue miembro de la resistencia contra Hitler y del complot del 20 de julio. (es)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin was the son of the Royal Prussian Rittmeister Hermann von Kleist (1849–1913) and his wife Elisabeth (Lili) (1863–1945). Born in Dubberow (now Dobrowo, Poland), near Belgard, Pomerania, Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin supported the national-conservative German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei). As a conservative, he supported the idea of monarchy and Christian ideals, shown in part through his membership of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg), to which he was admitted as a Knight of Honour in 1922 and in which he was promoted to Knight of Justice in 1935. He was a staunch, active opponent of Nazism even before Hitler came to power in 1933. He ended up being arrested as a result in May and June of that year, although he was never held very long. He refused to fly the Nazi flag over his castle. Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin went to the United Kingdom in 1938 as Admiral Wilhelm Canaris's and Colonel-General Ludwig Beck's secret emissary. He was to make the British government aware of the resistance to Hitler's rule inside Germany. He used his contacts with Winston Churchill and Robert Vansittart to try to shift British policy away from one of appeasement to one based more on the use of force. He believed that only if the British were seen to be willing to use force to support Czechoslovakia would the opposition in Germany have the support that it needed among Germany's High Command to move against Hitler. Churchill agreed that a change of leadership in Germany would be a good idea, and even sent Hitler a strongly worded letter, but since Churchill was not yet Prime Minister, it had no effect on him. Kleist-Schmenzin's efforts to get the British to change their policy failed, as did a number of other later missions sent by those who opposed the Nazis. Another factor in his diplomatic failure, was that the nationalist resistance against Hitler openly revealed to British politicians that it seeks to annex territory in both Poland and Czechoslovakia. During his mission in Britain, he presented such bold German revisionist demands for annexation of other countries areas, that in the words of Klemens von Klemperer "territorial aspirations of the Widerstand exceed those of even the Nazis"; at the same time Kleist claimed that besides Hitler there were no other extremist elements in Germany. Kleist-Schmenzin nonetheless still supported the idea of overthrowing Hitler, and to that end, he met Carl Friedrich Goerdeler in 1942 and 1943, a fellow conservative and resistance fighter, who also favoured a coup d'état. Kleist-Schmenzin eventually found his way into the plot's inner circle and advocated a number of violent acts to get rid of Hitler. He urged his son, Lieutenant Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin, to go through with a suicide-assassination plot in January 1944 which would have seen him blow himself and Hitler up with two hand grenades hidden under a new uniform that he was to "demonstrate" to Hitler. However, Hitler did not show up. Kleist-Schmenzin also supported Claus von Stauffenberg's plan to kill Hitler with a briefcase bomb that the Count would take to the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia. Stauffenberg appointed Kleist-Schmenzin political representative in the Stettin military district in preparation for the coup d'état. (en)
  • Apparteneva ad un'antica famiglia dell'aristocrazia feudale prussiana, i baroni von Kleist; della sua famiglia facevano parte il poeta e romanziere Heinrich von Kleist e Ewald von Kleist, militare e scrittore tedesco. Il barone von Kleist-Schmenzin studiò all'Università di Breslavia filosofia e storia e all'Università di Lipsia teologia, conseguendo lauree sempre con il massimo dei voti; durante la sua giovinezza conobbe il VI principe di Löwenstein, Aloys zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, sostenitore delle idee monarchiche costituzionali, e ispirato dalla figura di questi scrisse il saggio filosofico "Tutto per il popolo, ma niente attraverso il popolo". Il titolo riprende una celebre frase dell'imperatore austriaco Giuseppe II, uno dei massimi sovrani illuminati. Von Kleist-Schemenzin non era un sostenitore della monarchia assoluta, invece vedeva nella figura del re una guida, un giudice della nazione, come una figura benefica che dovesse guidare lo Stato alla perfezione, alla sua prosperità su tutti i fronti: cultura, politica estera, ecc.. In questi anni ebbe un intenso scambio di lettere con Ernst von Hohenlohe-Langenburg, esponente del partito monarchico oppositore del fascismo; nonostante fosse conservatore, il barone non vide di buon occhio l'assassinio da parte del monarchico austriaco Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley di Kurt Eisner, e tanto meno appoggiò l'entrata al governo dei nazisti, dei quali invece divenne uno strenuo oppositore. Quando nel 1933 degli agenti delle SS esposero su una torre del suo castello la bandiera nazista, von Kleist-Schmenzin la strappò da lì e perciò fu incarcerato a Berlino per qualche tempo. Seguentemente conobbe Hellmuth von Mücke e con lui divenne il massimo alfiere della resistenza monarchica cristiana al nazismo. Nel 1938 entrò a far parte dell'Abwehr dell'ammiraglio Wilhelm Canaris e fu mandato in missione speciale in Inghilterra per trattare una possibile resa della Germania dopo la caduta di Adolf Hitler e pare che durante la sua visita in Inghilterra fosse stato insignito dell'Ordine del Cardo. Successivamente supportò gli agenti dell'Abwehr in Cecoslovacchia e fu corrispondente di Elard von Oldenburg-Januschau e Gottfried von Bismarck-Schönhausen segnalando le atrocità delle SS contro la popolazione civile e slava; inoltre fu uno dei primi testimoni dell'Olocausto mandando i suoi rapporti segreti su di esso a Londra. Partecipò all'attentato a Hitler del 20 luglio 1944, fornendo due granate a Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg; fallito il colpo di Stato di Stauffenberg (se esso fosse riuscito sarebbe diventato presidente della regione di Stettino fino alla ripristinazione degli Hohenzollern), fu arrestato da alcuni agenti della Gestapo e processato al Tribunale del Popolo dal giudice Roland Freisler: condannato a morte, fu ghigliottinato nel carcere di Plötzensee. (it)
  • Ewald Albert Friedrich Karl Leopold Arnold von Kleist-Schmenzin (ur. 22 marca 1890 w Dobrowie, zm. 9 kwietnia 1945 w Berlinie) - niemiecki konserwatywny polityk, ofiara zamachu na Hitlera. Syn Hermanna i Elisabeth von Kleist. Po maturze zaczął studiować prawo w Lipsku (Leipzig), po czym studia kontynuował na Uniwersytecie Greifswaldzkim. Po ukończonych studiach zgłosił się dobrowolnie do służby wojskowej, ale z powodów zdrowotnych brał udział tylko na początku I wojny światowej. W roku 1921 odziedziczył po babci majątki (m.in. miejscowość Smęcino), którymi zarządzał. W czasach Republiki Weimarskiej wstąpił do Niemieckiej Narodowej Partii Ludowej (DNVP), brał udział w dwóch zamachach stanu: Kappa-Lüttwitza i monachijskim. W związku z jego konserwatywną postawą, odrzucał socjalizm narodowy, zamiast którego próbował urzeczywistniać idee rewolucji francuskiej. W roku 1932 w jego publikacji Socjalizm narodowy - zagrożenie (Der Nationalsozialismus – eine Gefahr) ostrzegał o przejęciu władzy przez nazistów. Kiedy w styczniu 1933 doszło jednak do przejęcia władzy, wystąpił z DNVP. Został członkiem Kościoła Wyznającego (Bekennende Kirche) i po tym jak polityka Hitlera wskazywała na wybuch wojny szukał kontaktu u Ludwiga Becka w sprawie ruchu oporu. W roku 1938 wyjechał do Londynu (London), aby poznać opinię brytyjskiego rządu, w sprawie ewentualnego zamachu stanu. W sierpniu 1939 roku wyjechał do Sztokholmu (Stockholm). Podczas rozmów dyskutował o planach napadu oraz o egzystencji opozycji wojskowej w Niemczech. Z konspiratorami zamachu na Hitlera kontaktował się przez swojego syna Ewalda-Henryka von Kleist-Schmenzin, który w roku 1943 miał zabić Hitlera podczas samobójczego zamachu. Po klęsce zamachu z 20 lipca ojciec wraz z synem zostali aresztowani 21 lipca 1944 roku. Z powodu braku wystarczających dowodów Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin został wypuszczony na wolność, jego ojciec natomiast dnia 9 kwietnia 1945 roku został skazany na śmierć przez powieszenie w więzieniu Plötzensee w Berlinie. (pl)
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  • Ewald Albert Friedrich Karl Leopold Arnold von Kleist-Schmenzin (* 22. März 1890 auf Gut Groß-Dubberow, Landkreis Belgard (Persante), Pommern; † 9. April 1945 in Berlin-Plötzensee) war ein deutscher konservativer Politiker. Er wurde im Rahmen nationalsozialistischer Verfolgung nach dem 20. Juli 1944 hingerichtet. (de)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin (22 de marzo de 1890 - 9 de abril de 1945) fue un noble alemán, abogado, político conservador y terrateniente en Pomerania, al noreste de Berlín. Fue miembro de la resistencia contra Hitler y del complot del 20 de julio. (es)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin was the son of the Royal Prussian Rittmeister Hermann von Kleist (1849–1913) and his wife Elisabeth (Lili) (1863–1945). Born in Dubberow (now Dobrowo, Poland), near Belgard, Pomerania, Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin supported the national-conservative German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei). As a conservative, he supported the idea of monarchy and Christian ideals, shown in part through his membership of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg), to which he was admitted as a Knight of Honour in 1922 and in which he was promoted to Knight of Justice in 1935. He was a staunch, active opponent of Nazism even before Hitler came to power in 1933. He ended up being arrested as a result in May and June of that year, although he was never held (en)
  • Apparteneva ad un'antica famiglia dell'aristocrazia feudale prussiana, i baroni von Kleist; della sua famiglia facevano parte il poeta e romanziere Heinrich von Kleist e Ewald von Kleist, militare e scrittore tedesco. Von Kleist-Schemenzin non era un sostenitore della monarchia assoluta, invece vedeva nella figura del re una guida, un giudice della nazione, come una figura benefica che dovesse guidare lo Stato alla perfezione, alla sua prosperità su tutti i fronti: cultura, politica estera, ecc.. (it)
  • Ewald Albert Friedrich Karl Leopold Arnold von Kleist-Schmenzin (ur. 22 marca 1890 w Dobrowie, zm. 9 kwietnia 1945 w Berlinie) - niemiecki konserwatywny polityk, ofiara zamachu na Hitlera. Syn Hermanna i Elisabeth von Kleist. Po maturze zaczął studiować prawo w Lipsku (Leipzig), po czym studia kontynuował na Uniwersytecie Greifswaldzkim. Po ukończonych studiach zgłosił się dobrowolnie do służby wojskowej, ale z powodów zdrowotnych brał udział tylko na początku I wojny światowej. W roku 1921 odziedziczył po babci majątki (m.in. miejscowość Smęcino), którymi zarządzał. W czasach Republiki Weimarskiej wstąpił do Niemieckiej Narodowej Partii Ludowej (DNVP), brał udział w dwóch zamachach stanu: Kappa-Lüttwitza i monachijskim. (pl)
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  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin (en)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin (es)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin (it)
  • Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin (pl)
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