England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf and sophisticated metalwork. The Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built across England. In the 8th and 9th centuries England faced fierce Viking attacks, and the fighting lasted for many decade

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  • England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf and sophisticated metalwork. The Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built across England. In the 8th and 9th centuries England faced fierce Viking attacks, and the fighting lasted for many decades, eventually establishing Wessex as the most powerful kingdom and promoting the growth of an English identity. Despite repeated crises of succession and a Danish seizure of power at the start of the 11th century, it can also be argued that by the 1060s England was a powerful, centralised state with a strong military and successful economy. The Norman invasion of England in 1066 led to the defeat and replacement of the Anglo-Saxon elite with Norman and French nobles and their supporters. William the Conqueror and his successors took over the existing state system, repressing local revolts and controlling the population through a network of castles. The new rulers introduced a feudal approach to governing England, eradicating the practice of slavery, but creating a much wider body of unfree labourers called serfs. The position of women in society changed as laws regarding land and lordship shifted. England's population more than doubled during the 12th and 13th centuries, fueling an expansion of the towns, cities, and trade, helped by warmer temperatures across Northern Europe. A new wave of monasteries and friaries was established while ecclesiastical reforms led to tensions between successive kings and archbishops. Despite developments in England's governance and legal system, infighting between the Anglo-Norman elite resulted in multiple civil wars and the loss of Normandy. The 14th century in England saw the Great Famine and the Black Death, catastrophic events that killed around half of England's population, throwing the economy into chaos, and undermining the old political order. Social unrest followed, resulting in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, while the changes in the economy resulted in the emergence of a new class of gentry, and the nobility began to exercise power through a system termed bastard feudalism. Nearly 1,500 villages were deserted by their inhabitants and many men and women sought new opportunities in the towns and cities. New technologies were introduced, and England produced some of the great medieval philosophers and natural scientists. English kings in the 14th and 15th centuries laid claim to the French throne, resulting in the Hundred Years' War. At times England enjoyed huge military success, with the economy buoyed by profits from the international wool and cloth trade, but by 1450 the country was in crisis, facing military failure in France and an ongoing recession. More social unrest broke out, followed by the Wars of the Roses, fought between rival factions of the English nobility. Henry VII's victory in 1485 conventionally marks the end of the Middle Ages in England and the start of the Early Modern period. (en)
  • Il Medioevo inglese è un periodo storico, iniziato nel V e terminato nel XVI secolo. Storicamente inizia con la partenza delle legioni romane dalla Britannia e l'invasione degli Anglosassoni e termina con Enrico VIII e la riforma del teologo scozzese, John Knox. All'interno del Medioevo inglese, i secoli V e VI sono conosciuti dagli storici con i nomi di, "periodo sub-romano" o "secoli bui", a cui seguì il periodo noto come, "eptarchia anglosassone". Sul finire dell'VIII secolo giunsero invece i Vichinghi, causa di molti cambiamenti nell'isola. La conquista normanna, invece, fu un vero e proprio spartiacque nella storia medievale inglese, ponendo fine al periodo dell'Inghilterra anglosassone. Fino al X secolo il processo di sostituzione del potere celtico con quello germanico continuò in maniera frammentaria. (it)
  • Vid tiden för domedagsundersökningen 1086 var England inte ett land med särskilt mycket skog. Cirka 15 % av landarealen var skogstäckt, vilket betydde att England då hade mindre skog än dagens Frankrike, men mer än nutidens Danmark. Hälften av de förtecknade byarna hade inte tillgång till skogsmark. Några få områden var huvudsakligen beskogade, men med stora öar av jordbruksmark. De största skogarna fanns i med cirka 5 500 km² och Chiltern Hills med omkring 2 500 km², men de var inte obebodda utan det fanns insprängda inslag av jordbruk. Nyodlingar gjorde att skogsmarken hade krympt till omkring 10 % av landarealen 1350. Med digerdöden (se nedan) upphörde dock nyodlingarna och skogsbeståndet förblev oförändrat till 1800-talet. Under högmedeltiden spred sig tegskiftet över Englands jordbruksmarker. Vid sin största utbredning omkring 1350 brukades upp till en tredjedel av Englands areal som tegskiftat åkerbruk. Tegskiftets centrum var i kraftigt uppodlade slättområden, med lite eller ingen skog. I slättområden med mera skog och i andra områden var tegskiftet föga utbrett. De tegskiftade områdena kännetecknades av stora byar, medan de icke tegskiftade områdena hade många småbyar och ensamgårdar. (sv)
  • 410—1485 рр. н. е. ми називаємо середньовіччям або середніми віками. Але визначити точну дату початку або завершення цього періоду неможливо. Середньовіччя почалася не відразу після того, як у 410 р. Англію залишили останні римські війська, і не закінчилося після того, як на престол зійшов Генріх VII. У період середньовіччя англійські королі мали володіння не тільки в Англії, а й у Франції. Генріх I правив Нормандією, Бретанню і Меном, а Генріх II — імперією, яка простягалася від шотландського кордону до Піренеїв. (uk)
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  • 410—1485 рр. н. е. ми називаємо середньовіччям або середніми віками. Але визначити точну дату початку або завершення цього періоду неможливо. Середньовіччя почалася не відразу після того, як у 410 р. Англію залишили останні римські війська, і не закінчилося після того, як на престол зійшов Генріх VII. У період середньовіччя англійські королі мали володіння не тільки в Англії, а й у Франції. Генріх I правив Нормандією, Бретанню і Меном, а Генріх II — імперією, яка простягалася від шотландського кордону до Піренеїв. (uk)
  • England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf and sophisticated metalwork. The Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built across England. In the 8th and 9th centuries England faced fierce Viking attacks, and the fighting lasted for many decade (en)
  • Il Medioevo inglese è un periodo storico, iniziato nel V e terminato nel XVI secolo. Storicamente inizia con la partenza delle legioni romane dalla Britannia e l'invasione degli Anglosassoni e termina con Enrico VIII e la riforma del teologo scozzese, John Knox. (it)
  • Vid tiden för domedagsundersökningen 1086 var England inte ett land med särskilt mycket skog. Cirka 15 % av landarealen var skogstäckt, vilket betydde att England då hade mindre skog än dagens Frankrike, men mer än nutidens Danmark. Hälften av de förtecknade byarna hade inte tillgång till skogsmark. Några få områden var huvudsakligen beskogade, men med stora öar av jordbruksmark. De största skogarna fanns i med cirka 5 500 km² och Chiltern Hills med omkring 2 500 km², men de var inte obebodda utan det fanns insprängda inslag av jordbruk. Nyodlingar gjorde att skogsmarken hade krympt till omkring 10 % av landarealen 1350. Med digerdöden (se nedan) upphörde dock nyodlingarna och skogsbeståndet förblev oförändrat till 1800-talet. Under högmedeltiden spred sig tegskiftet över Englands jordbru (sv)
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  • England in the Middle Ages (en)
  • Medioevo inglese (it)
  • England under medeltiden (sv)
  • Середньовічна Англія (uk)
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