Eleanor Jack Gibson (December 7, 1910 – December 30, 2002) was an American psychologist. Among her contributions to psychology, the most important are the study of perception in infants and toddlers. She is popularly known for the "visual cliff" experiment in which precocial animals, and crawling human infants, showed their ability to perceive depth by avoiding the deep side of a virtual cliff.The visual cliff findings indicated that perception is an essentially adaptive process, or as Dr. Gibson put it, We perceive to learn, as well as learn to perceive.

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  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (* 7. Dezember 1910 in Peoria, Illinois, USA; † 30. Dezember 2002 in Columbia, South Carolina) war eine US-amerikanische Entwicklungspsychologin und hat sich vor allem mit der Entwicklung der Wahrnehmung von Säuglingen auseinandergesetzt. Außerdem hat sie sich aber auch der Psychologie des Lesens gewidmet. Verheiratet war sie mit James J. Gibson, der ebenfalls Psychologe war. Gibson studierte an der Yale University und erlangte dort 1938 ihren Ph. D. Die meiste Zeit ihres Lebens - seit 1949 - forschte sie an der Cornell University, seit 1965 als Professorin. Sie wurde 1977 in die American Academy of Arts and Sciences aufgenommen und erhielt 1992 die National Medal of Science. Die wohl bekannteste Versuchsanordnung von Gibson ist die „Visuelle Klippe“ (Gibson & Walk, 1960), mit der sie die Tiefenwahrnehmung bei Säuglingen untersuchte. (de)
  • Eleanor Gibson studiò alla Yale University sotto la direzione di Clark Hull, uno dei più importanti teorici dell'apprendimento. Nel 1969, il suo libro "Principles of Perceptual Learning and Development", fu uno dei testi di psicologia dello sviluppo più influenti. La sua teoria fornì un'alternativa alla teoria dell'apprendimento e all'approccio piagetiano. Tra i suoi contributi alla psicologia (dell'età evolutiva in particolare), i più importanti sono sullo studio della percezione nei neonati e nei bambini. Il suo esperimento più noto è quello della "scogliera visiva" che consisteva nel porre un neonato su un tavolo di legno e invitarlo a muoversi verso il prolungamento in vetro presente ad un'estremità: l'esperimento mostrava come i bambini desistessero dal procedere sulla lastra di vetro, cioè oltre il ciglio di una apparente "scogliera", dimostrando la capacità di percezione della profondità, evitando il lato profondo di una scogliera virtuale. Insieme al marito James J. Gibson, anch'egli psicologo, ha sviluppato il concetto che l'apprendimento percettivo avvenga per differenziazione. Alla Gibson è accreditata la creazione di una teoria ecologica dello sviluppo che si concentra sul concetto di affordances (opportunità per l'azione) e su come i bambini imparino a percepirle. I risultati degli esperimenti sulla scogliera visiva hanno indicato che la percezione è un processo essenzialmente adattivo, o come la Gibson afferma: "noi percepiamo di imparare, così come impariamo a percepire". Nel 1992, le è stata assegnata la National Medal of Science. (it)
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (December 7, 1910 – December 30, 2002) was an American psychologist. Among her contributions to psychology, the most important are the study of perception in infants and toddlers. She is popularly known for the "visual cliff" experiment in which precocial animals, and crawling human infants, showed their ability to perceive depth by avoiding the deep side of a virtual cliff. Along with her husband James J. Gibson, she forwarded the concept that perceptual learning takes place by differentiation. Gibson is credited with creating the Gibsonian or ecological theory of development, which centers on the concept of affordances and how children learn to perceive them. According to Life magazine in 1959, the "Visual Cliff" was "a wooden table from the edge of which strong plate glass extended...Children were put on the table top and coaxed to crawl out over the glass. But when they got to the edge of the cliff and looked down almost all of them quickly withdrew. Even their mothers' most persuasive urgings could not get them out." Similar studies were done with animals, including rats and kittens. The visual cliff findings indicated that perception is an essentially adaptive process, or as Dr. Gibson put it, We perceive to learn, as well as learn to perceive. In 1982, she was invited to Beijing to teach Chinese psychologists about recent theories and techniques of research. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1977. In 1992, Eleanor Gibson was awarded the National Medal of Science. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Gibson as the 74th most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with Paul E. Meehl. (en)
  • 埃莉诺·吉布森(Eleanor J Gibson,1910-2002年)是一位重要的美国 心理学家。她对心理学最重要的贡献是对儿童知觉的研究,以早熟动物和爬行的人类婴儿的视崖(visual cliff)实验而广为人知,显示他们拥有深度知觉,能够察觉视觉上的悬崖,进行躲避。 (zh)
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  • Yale University (en)
  • Smith College ( ) (en)
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  • Visual Cliff, Differentiation and Enrichment of Embedded Structures (en)
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  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (en)
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  • 埃莉诺·吉布森(Eleanor J Gibson,1910-2002年)是一位重要的美国 心理学家。她对心理学最重要的贡献是对儿童知觉的研究,以早熟动物和爬行的人类婴儿的视崖(visual cliff)实验而广为人知,显示他们拥有深度知觉,能够察觉视觉上的悬崖,进行躲避。 (zh)
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (* 7. Dezember 1910 in Peoria, Illinois, USA; † 30. Dezember 2002 in Columbia, South Carolina) war eine US-amerikanische Entwicklungspsychologin und hat sich vor allem mit der Entwicklung der Wahrnehmung von Säuglingen auseinandergesetzt. Außerdem hat sie sich aber auch der Psychologie des Lesens gewidmet. Verheiratet war sie mit James J. Gibson, der ebenfalls Psychologe war.Die wohl bekannteste Versuchsanordnung von Gibson ist die „Visuelle Klippe“ (Gibson & Walk, 1960), mit der sie die Tiefenwahrnehmung bei Säuglingen untersuchte. (de)
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (December 7, 1910 – December 30, 2002) was an American psychologist. Among her contributions to psychology, the most important are the study of perception in infants and toddlers. She is popularly known for the "visual cliff" experiment in which precocial animals, and crawling human infants, showed their ability to perceive depth by avoiding the deep side of a virtual cliff.The visual cliff findings indicated that perception is an essentially adaptive process, or as Dr. Gibson put it, We perceive to learn, as well as learn to perceive. (en)
  • Eleanor Gibson studiò alla Yale University sotto la direzione di Clark Hull, uno dei più importanti teorici dell'apprendimento. Nel 1969, il suo libro "Principles of Perceptual Learning and Development", fu uno dei testi di psicologia dello sviluppo più influenti. La sua teoria fornì un'alternativa alla teoria dell'apprendimento e all'approccio piagetiano.I risultati degli esperimenti sulla scogliera visiva hanno indicato che la percezione è un processo essenzialmente adattivo, o come la Gibson afferma: "noi percepiamo di imparare, così come impariamo a percepire". (it)
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  • Eleanor J. Gibson (de)
  • Eleanor J. Gibson (en)
  • Eleanor J. Gibson (it)
  • 埃莉诺·吉布森 (zh)
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  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (en)
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