The deductive-nomological model (DN model), also known as Hempel's model or the Hempel–Oppenheim model or the Popper–Hempel model or the Covering Law Model, is a formal view of scientifically answering questions asking, "Why...?". The DN model poses scientific explanation as a deductive structure—that is, one where truth of its premises entails truth of its conclusion—hinged on accurate prediction or postdiction of the phenomenon to be explained.

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  • Das deduktiv-nomologische Modell (kurz DN-Modell) ist eine formale Struktur der wissenschaftlichen Erklärung eines Kausalzusammenhangs mittels natürlicher Sprache. Es dient sowohl zur Erklärung von allgemeinen Gesetzmäßigkeiten als auch von einzelnen sprachlich beschreibbaren Ereignissen. Das Modell wurde von Carl Gustav Hempel und Paul Oppenheim 1948 in dem Artikel "Studies in the Logic of Explanation" vorgeschlagen und ist auch als Hempel-Oppenheim-Schema (kurz HO-Schema) bekannt. Es besteht aus zwei Teilen, dem durch Schließen zu erklärenden Satz (Explanandum) sowie der Erklärung (Explanans), die sich aus allgemeinen Gesetzesaussagen und (empirischen) Randbedingungen (Antezedensaussagen) als Prämissen zusammensetzt. Die Grundstruktur des Schemas ist spätestens seit dem 19. Jahrhundert bekannt und wurde von Karl Popper 1935 in Logik der Forschung aufgegriffen. Nach der Ausarbeitung durch Hempel und Oppenheim 1948 wurde es ab den späten 1950ern von zahlreichen Autoren diskutiert. (de)
  • The deductive-nomological model (DN model), also known as Hempel's model or the Hempel–Oppenheim model or the Popper–Hempel model or the Covering Law Model, is a formal view of scientifically answering questions asking, "Why...?". The DN model poses scientific explanation as a deductive structure—that is, one where truth of its premises entails truth of its conclusion—hinged on accurate prediction or postdiction of the phenomenon to be explained. Because of problems concerning humans' ability to define, discover, and know causality, it was omitted in initial formulations of the DN model. Causality was thought to be incidentally approximated by realistic selection of premises that derive the phenomenon of interest from observed starting conditions plus general laws. Still, DN model formally permitted causally irrelevant factors. Also, derivability from observations and laws sometimes yielded absurd answers. Upon the fall of logical empiricism's in the 1960s, the DN model was widely seen as a flawed or greatly incomplete model of scientific explanation. Nonetheless, it remained an idealized version of scientific explanation, and one that was rather accurate when applied to modern physics. In the early 1980s, revision to DN model emphasized maximal specificity for relevance of the conditions and axioms stated. Together with Hempel's inductive-statistical model, the DN model forms scientific explanation's covering law model, which is also termed, from critical angle, subsumption theory. (en)
  • Il modello nomologico-deduttivo (spesso abbreviato in modello D-N, dall'inglese Deductive-Nomological) è un modello inteso a chiarire la natura della spiegazione scientifica proposto da Carl Gustav Hempel e Paul Oppenheim nel loro articolo Studies in the Logic of Explanation del 1948. Si fa riferimento ad esso anche con il nome modello a legge di copertura, sebbene non sia l'unico modello a richiedere l'uso di leggi di natura. (it)
  • Het hempel-oppenheimschema (vaak verkort tot HO-Schema) of ook deductief-nomologisch Model (kort DN-Model) is bedoeld om de structuur van een wetenschappelijke verklaring in beeld te brengen. Het model is door Carl Gustav Hempel en Paul Oppenheim beschreven. (nl)
  • Model nomologiczno-dedukcyjny (w skrócie model ND) - to formalizacja ogólnego schematu naukowego wnioskowania, zaproponowana przez Carla Hempla i Paula Oppenheima w 1948 r. Model ten opisuje w sposób możliwie najbardziej ogólny sposób rozumowania, który ma miejsce przy próbach naukowego wyjaśniania zjawisk i obserwacji. Model ten jest swoistym uogólnieniem prób logicyzacji procesu generowania i stosowania teorii naukowych zaproponowanych przez filozofów wywodzących się z kręgu Koła Wiedeńskiego oraz Karla Poppera. (pl)
  • O método (modelo) dedutivo-nomológico (ou D-N) é uma visão formalizada da explicação científica em linguagem natural. Caracteriza as explicações científicas primariamente como argumentos dedutivos com ao menos uma lei natural entre as premissas. "Nomológico" vem da palavra grega νόμος (nomos), i.e., "lei." O método D-N é conhecido por muitos nomes, incluindo "método da lei de cobertura", "teoria da subsumpção", "modelo de Hempel", "modelo Hempel-Oppenheim" e "modelo Popper-Hempel" (Niiniluoto, 1995). Essa é uma parte importante sobre a discussão sobre a natureza da explicação científica. Esse método foi inicialmente formalizado Carl Hempel e Paul Oppenheim em seu artigo Studies in the Logic of Explanation (1948). Um esboço disso pode ser encontrado em Karl Popper, Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959). As sentenças que formulam a informação explanatória são as sentenças explanans e seu conjunto é o explanantia. A conclusão do explanans é o explanandum. Os componentes do explanans são as leis, ou teorias explicativas que funcionam, e as condições iniciais, enquanto que o fato a ser comprovado é o explanandum. Um exemplo de como isso é utilizado seria a descrição científica a reação do hidróxido de sódio com o ácido clorídrico. O reação que gera cloreto de sódio e água é o explanandum, o fato a ser observado e comprovado e que acontece porque toda reação entre ácido e base gera sal e água e é necessário que haja condições para isto, o explanans. (pt)
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  • Il modello nomologico-deduttivo (spesso abbreviato in modello D-N, dall'inglese Deductive-Nomological) è un modello inteso a chiarire la natura della spiegazione scientifica proposto da Carl Gustav Hempel e Paul Oppenheim nel loro articolo Studies in the Logic of Explanation del 1948. Si fa riferimento ad esso anche con il nome modello a legge di copertura, sebbene non sia l'unico modello a richiedere l'uso di leggi di natura. (it)
  • Het hempel-oppenheimschema (vaak verkort tot HO-Schema) of ook deductief-nomologisch Model (kort DN-Model) is bedoeld om de structuur van een wetenschappelijke verklaring in beeld te brengen. Het model is door Carl Gustav Hempel en Paul Oppenheim beschreven. (nl)
  • Model nomologiczno-dedukcyjny (w skrócie model ND) - to formalizacja ogólnego schematu naukowego wnioskowania, zaproponowana przez Carla Hempla i Paula Oppenheima w 1948 r. Model ten opisuje w sposób możliwie najbardziej ogólny sposób rozumowania, który ma miejsce przy próbach naukowego wyjaśniania zjawisk i obserwacji. Model ten jest swoistym uogólnieniem prób logicyzacji procesu generowania i stosowania teorii naukowych zaproponowanych przez filozofów wywodzących się z kręgu Koła Wiedeńskiego oraz Karla Poppera. (pl)
  • The deductive-nomological model (DN model), also known as Hempel's model or the Hempel–Oppenheim model or the Popper–Hempel model or the Covering Law Model, is a formal view of scientifically answering questions asking, "Why...?". The DN model poses scientific explanation as a deductive structure—that is, one where truth of its premises entails truth of its conclusion—hinged on accurate prediction or postdiction of the phenomenon to be explained. (en)
  • Das deduktiv-nomologische Modell (kurz DN-Modell) ist eine formale Struktur der wissenschaftlichen Erklärung eines Kausalzusammenhangs mittels natürlicher Sprache. Es dient sowohl zur Erklärung von allgemeinen Gesetzmäßigkeiten als auch von einzelnen sprachlich beschreibbaren Ereignissen. Das Modell wurde von Carl Gustav Hempel und Paul Oppenheim 1948 in dem Artikel "Studies in the Logic of Explanation" vorgeschlagen und ist auch als Hempel-Oppenheim-Schema (kurz HO-Schema) bekannt. Es besteht aus zwei Teilen, dem durch Schließen zu erklärenden Satz (Explanandum) sowie der Erklärung (Explanans), die sich aus allgemeinen Gesetzesaussagen und (empirischen) Randbedingungen (Antezedensaussagen) als Prämissen zusammensetzt. (de)
  • O método (modelo) dedutivo-nomológico (ou D-N) é uma visão formalizada da explicação científica em linguagem natural. Caracteriza as explicações científicas primariamente como argumentos dedutivos com ao menos uma lei natural entre as premissas. "Nomológico" vem da palavra grega νόμος (nomos), i.e., "lei." O método D-N é conhecido por muitos nomes, incluindo "método da lei de cobertura", "teoria da subsumpção", "modelo de Hempel", "modelo Hempel-Oppenheim" e "modelo Popper-Hempel" (Niiniluoto, 1995). Essa é uma parte importante sobre a discussão sobre a natureza da explicação científica. (pt)
rdfs:label
  • Deduktiv-nomologisches Modell (de)
  • Deductive-nomological model (en)
  • Modello nomologico-deduttivo (it)
  • Hempel-oppenheimschema (nl)
  • Model nomologiczno-dedukcyjny (pl)
  • Método dedutivo-nomológico (pt)
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