The Constitution of the Year VIII (French: Constitution de l'an VIII) was a national constitution of France, adopted December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar), which established the form of government known as the Consulate. The coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799) effectively gave all power to Napoleon Bonaparte, and in the eyes of some, ended the French Revolution.

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  • The Constitution of the Year VIII (French: Constitution de l'an VIII) was a national constitution of France, adopted December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar), which established the form of government known as the Consulate. The coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799) effectively gave all power to Napoleon Bonaparte, and in the eyes of some, ended the French Revolution. After the coup, Napoleon and his allies legitimized his position by creating the "short and obscure Constitution of the Year VIII" (as Malcolm Crook has called it). The constitution tailor-made the position of First Consul to give Napoleon most of the powers of a dictator. It was the first constitution since the Revolution without a Declaration of Rights. The executive power was vested in three Consuls, but all actual power was held by the First Consul, Bonaparte. This was unlike Robespierre's Republic, which was more radical, or the oligarchic liberal Republic of the Directory, but more similar to the autocratic Roman Republic of Caesar Augustus, a Conservative Republic, which reminded the French of stability, order, and peace. To emphasize this, Napoleon used classical Roman terms in the Constitution, such as Consul, Senator and Tribune. The Constitution of Year VIII established a legislature of three houses, which was composed of a Conservative Senate of 80 men over the age of 40, a Tribunate of 100 men and a Legislative Body (Corps législatif) of 300 men. The Constitution also used the term "notables". The term "notables" was a common usage under the monarchy; every Frenchman understood it, and it was comforting. It referred to prominent, "distinguished" men — landholders, merchants, scholars, professionals, clergymen and officials. The people in each district chose a slate of "notables" by popular vote. The First Consul, Tribunate, and Corps Législatif each nominated one Senatorial candidate to the rest of the Senate, which chose one candidate from among the three. Once all of its members were picked, it would then appoint the Tribunate, the Corps Législatif, the judges of cassation, and the commissioners of accounts from the slate of notables. Napoleon held a plebiscite on the Constitution in December. The vote was not binding, but it allowed Napoleon to maintain a veneer of democracy. The vote was said to be 3,011,007 in favor, and 1,562 against, which is completely ludicrous to claim that 99.5 per cent of Frenchmen had voted yes; The true result was probably around 1.55 million for it, against severel thousand against it. This Constitution was amended, first, by the Constitution of the Year X, which made Napoleon First Consul for Life, more extensively altered by the Constitution of the Year XII which established the Bonaparte dynasty with Napoleon as a hereditary Emperor, abolished by the first, brief Bourbon Restoration of 1814, revived and at once virtually replaced by the so-called "Additional Act" of April 1815 promulgated on Napoleon's brief return; and definitively abolished by the return of Louis XVIII later in 1815 (following the Hundred Days). The Napoleonic constitutions were then completely replaced by the Charter of 1814. (en)
  • La Constitución del Año VIII fue una constitución aprobada en Francia el 24 de diciembre de 1799 (4 de Nivoso del año VIII, según el calendario republicano francés); estableció una forma de gobierno conocida como Consulado. El golpe de estado del 18 de Brumario (9 de noviembre de 1799) acabó eficazmente con la Revolución francesa. La constitución hizo a medida el papel de Primer Cónsul para otorgarle a Napoleón Bonaparte poderes similares a un dictador. Tenía 95 artículos, en los que se regulaba el derecho de sufragio universal, pero era solo en teoría, porque se le permitía votar exclusivamente a las personas que estuvieran en unas «listas de confianza». (es)
  • La Constitution du 22 frimaire an VIII est le texte constitutionnel du Consulat. Elle consacre le désir d'ordre de la bourgeoisie et celui de pouvoir personnel de Napoléon Bonaparte. (fr)
  • La Costituzione francese del 1799, detta anche Costituzione dell'anno VIII è la carta costituzionale del Consolato; essa consacra il desiderio d'ordine della borghesia e consegna il potere personale a Napoleone Bonaparte. Si accentua quindi quel cambiamento istituzionale i cui prodromi vanno rintracciati già nella Costituzione dell'anno III. (it)
  • 共和暦8年憲法(フランス語: Constitution de l'an VIII)は、1799年(共和暦8年)に制定されたフランスの憲法である。ブリュメール18日のクーデター(1799年11月9日)で全権を掌握し、フランス革命を終結させたナポレオン・ボナパルトを第一統領(第一執政)とする統領政府(執政政府)の枠組みが規定された。 (ja)
  • Конституция VIII года — основной закон Французской Республики с 25 декабря 1799 по 4 августа 1802. Период действия Конституции VIII года называется также десятилетним консульством. Фактически устанавливала диктатуру первого консула (Наполеона), но прямо не провозглашала её. (ru)
  • Konstytucja konsularna (właściwie – Konstytucja roku VIII, fr. Constitution de l’an VIII) – konstytucja francuska, przyjęta 24 grudnia 1799 (22 frimaire'a VIII roku rewolucji według francuskiego kalendarza rewolucyjnego), ustanawiająca ustrój konsulatu. (pl)
  • A Constituição do Ano VIII foi uma constituição nacional de França, adotada em referendo popular em 24 de dezembro de 1799 (durante o oitavo ano pelo calendário revolucionário francês), que estabelecia o Consulado como forma de governo (formado por três cônsules, que tinham poder para nomear os senadores que, por sua vez, escolhiam o Tribunato e o membros do legislativo), entrando em vigor a 1 de janeiro de 1800 - e feita após o Golpe de 18 Brumário para dar o poder efetivo a Napoleão Bonaparte. Sua aprovação selou o fim da Revolução Francesa. Foi substituída pela Constituição do Ano X, na verdade uma versão com poucas modificações daquela outra. (pt)
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  • Constitution of the Year VIII .
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  • Constitution of the Year VIII
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  • fr
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  • Constitution de l'an VIII
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • La Constitution du 22 frimaire an VIII est le texte constitutionnel du Consulat. Elle consacre le désir d'ordre de la bourgeoisie et celui de pouvoir personnel de Napoléon Bonaparte. (fr)
  • La Costituzione francese del 1799, detta anche Costituzione dell'anno VIII è la carta costituzionale del Consolato; essa consacra il desiderio d'ordine della borghesia e consegna il potere personale a Napoleone Bonaparte. Si accentua quindi quel cambiamento istituzionale i cui prodromi vanno rintracciati già nella Costituzione dell'anno III. (it)
  • 共和暦8年憲法(フランス語: Constitution de l'an VIII)は、1799年(共和暦8年)に制定されたフランスの憲法である。ブリュメール18日のクーデター(1799年11月9日)で全権を掌握し、フランス革命を終結させたナポレオン・ボナパルトを第一統領(第一執政)とする統領政府(執政政府)の枠組みが規定された。 (ja)
  • Конституция VIII года — основной закон Французской Республики с 25 декабря 1799 по 4 августа 1802. Период действия Конституции VIII года называется также десятилетним консульством. Фактически устанавливала диктатуру первого консула (Наполеона), но прямо не провозглашала её. (ru)
  • Konstytucja konsularna (właściwie – Konstytucja roku VIII, fr. Constitution de l’an VIII) – konstytucja francuska, przyjęta 24 grudnia 1799 (22 frimaire'a VIII roku rewolucji według francuskiego kalendarza rewolucyjnego), ustanawiająca ustrój konsulatu. (pl)
  • The Constitution of the Year VIII (French: Constitution de l'an VIII) was a national constitution of France, adopted December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar), which established the form of government known as the Consulate. The coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799) effectively gave all power to Napoleon Bonaparte, and in the eyes of some, ended the French Revolution. (en)
  • La Constitución del Año VIII fue una constitución aprobada en Francia el 24 de diciembre de 1799 (4 de Nivoso del año VIII, según el calendario republicano francés); estableció una forma de gobierno conocida como Consulado. El golpe de estado del 18 de Brumario (9 de noviembre de 1799) acabó eficazmente con la Revolución francesa. La constitución hizo a medida el papel de Primer Cónsul para otorgarle a Napoleón Bonaparte poderes similares a un dictador. (es)
  • A Constituição do Ano VIII foi uma constituição nacional de França, adotada em referendo popular em 24 de dezembro de 1799 (durante o oitavo ano pelo calendário revolucionário francês), que estabelecia o Consulado como forma de governo (formado por três cônsules, que tinham poder para nomear os senadores que, por sua vez, escolhiam o Tribunato e o membros do legislativo), entrando em vigor a 1 de janeiro de 1800 - e feita após o Golpe de 18 Brumário para dar o poder efetivo a Napoleão Bonaparte. Sua aprovação selou o fim da Revolução Francesa. (pt)
rdfs:label
  • Constitution of the Year VIII (en)
  • Constitución del Año VIII (es)
  • Constitution du 22 frimaire an VIII (fr)
  • Costituzione francese del 1799 (it)
  • 共和暦8年憲法 (ja)
  • Konstytucja konsularna (pl)
  • Конституция VIII года (ru)
  • Constituição do Ano VIII (pt)
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