In music, consonance and dissonance form a structural dichotomy in which the terms define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and reciprocally. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant. Consonance and dissonance define a level of sweetness / harshness, pleasantness / unpleasantness, acceptability / unacceptability, of the sounds or intervals under consideration. As Hindemith stressed, "The two concepts have never been completely explained, and for a thousand years the definitions have varied" (, p. 85).

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dbo:abstract
  • In music, consonance and dissonance form a structural dichotomy in which the terms define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and reciprocally. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant. Consonance and dissonance define a level of sweetness / harshness, pleasantness / unpleasantness, acceptability / unacceptability, of the sounds or intervals under consideration. As Hindemith stressed, "The two concepts have never been completely explained, and for a thousand years the definitions have varied" (, p. 85). The opposition can be made in different contexts: * In acoustics or psychophysiology, the distinction may be objective. In modern times, it usually is based on the perception of harmonic partials of the sounds considered, to such an extent that the distinction really holds only in the case of harmonic sounds (i.e. sounds with harmonic partials). * In music, even if the opposition often is founded on the preceding, objective distinction, it more often is subjective, conventional, cultural, and style-dependent. Dissonance can then be defined as a combination of sounds that does not belong to the style under consideration; in recent music, what is considered stylistically dissonant may even correspond to what is said to be consonant in the context of acoustics (e.g. a major triad in atonal music). In both cases, the distinction mainly concerns simultaneous sounds; if successive sounds are considered, their consonance or dissonance depends on the memorial retention of the first sound while the second is heard. For this reason, consonance and dissonance have been considered particularly in the case of polyphonic Occidental music, and the present article is concerned mainly with this case. Most historical definitions of consonance and dissonance since about the 16th century have stressed their pleasant/unpleasant, or agreeable/disagreeable character. This may be justifiable in a psychophysiological context, but much less in a musical context properly speaking: dissonances often play a decisive role in making music pleasant, even in a generally consonant context – which is one of the reasons why the musical definition of consonance/dissonance cannot match the psychophysiologic definition. In addition, the oppositions pleasant/unpleasant or agreeable/disagreeable evidence a confusion between the concepts of 'dissonance' and of 'noise'. (See also Noise in music, Noise music and Noise (acoustic).) While consonance and dissonance exist only between sounds and therefore necessarily describe intervals (or chords), Occidental music theory often considers that, in a dissonant chord, one of the tones alone is in itself the dissonance: it is this tone in particular that needs "resolution" through a specific voice leading. (en)
  • Nel linguaggio ordinario con il termine consonanza (dal latino consonare, "suonare insieme") si indica in genere un insieme di suoni eseguiti simultaneamente e tali che l'effetto complessivo risulti morbido e gradevole, mentre con il termine dissonanza, all'opposto, si indica un agglomerato di suoni dall'effetto aspro e stridente. Nella teoria musicale, si definisce più precisamente un intervallo consonante quando è caratterizzato da "stasi armonica" (non ha bisogno di risolvere su un ulteriore intervallo), e dissonante quando, all'orecchio, dà l'impressione di "movimento armonico", di dovere cioè risolvere su un intervallo consonante. Nel linguaggio tecnico della teoria musicale, e in particolare dell'armonia, le due parole hanno significati ben precisi, e anzi si può dire che la contrapposizione tra consonanza e dissonanza, insieme al principio della tonalità, rappresenta la base della teoria armonica occidentale. (it)
  • Vals (in tegenstelling tot zuiver) is een term die vaak ten onrechte wordt gebruikt in de muziek. Wat voor de een vals klinkt hoeft beslist in andere oren niet vals te klinken. Een voorbeeld daarvan is de Bulgaarse volksmuziek, die bij westerlingen vals overkomt, maar bij de Bulgaren zelf dat effect niet heeft. Het begrip vals valt uiteen in: (nl)
  • 協和音と不協和音の項目では、和音において、それが協和音とされるのか不協和音とされるのかを解説する。 (ja)
  • Em música, uma consonância (do latim consonare, significando soar junto) é uma harmonia, um acorde ou um intervalo considerado estável, em relação a uma dissonância que é considerada instável. A definição mais restritiva de consonância pode ser aqueles sons que são agradáveis enquanto que a definição geral inclui quaisquer sons que forem usados livremente. (pt)
  • Консонанс и диссонанс (фр. consonance, от лат. consonantia — созвучие, согласное звучание, и фр. dissonance, от лат. dissonantia — неблагозвучие, нестройное звучание; названные латинские термины — переводы, соответственно, др.-греч. συμφωνία и др.-греч. διαφωνία) в теории музыки — категории гармонии, характеризующие слияние или неслияние в восприятии одновременно звучащих тонов, а также сами созвучия (интервалы, аккорды), воспринимаемые/интерпретируемые как «слитные» и «неслитные». (ru)
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  • One component of dissonance—the uncertainty or confusion as to the virtual pitch evoked by an interval or chord, or the difficulty of fitting its pitches to a harmonic series —is modelled by harmonic entropy theory. Dips in this graph show consonant intervals such as 4:5 and 2:3. Other components not modeled by this theory include critical band roughness, and tonal context .
  • Dissonance may be the difficulty in determining the relationship between two frequencies, determined by their relative wavelengths. Consonant intervals take less, while dissonant intervals take more time to be determined.
  • Consonance may be explained as caused by a larger number of aligning harmonics between two notes. Dissonance is caused by the beating between close but non-aligned harmonics.
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  • September 2016
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  • vertical
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  • Dyadic harmonic entropy graph .png
  • Interval wavelength minor second.png
  • Line up of harmonics for PU with P5 and with M2.png
dbp:reason
  • The article is full of unspecific claims in regard of their citations.
dbp:reference
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  • Vals (in tegenstelling tot zuiver) is een term die vaak ten onrechte wordt gebruikt in de muziek. Wat voor de een vals klinkt hoeft beslist in andere oren niet vals te klinken. Een voorbeeld daarvan is de Bulgaarse volksmuziek, die bij westerlingen vals overkomt, maar bij de Bulgaren zelf dat effect niet heeft. Het begrip vals valt uiteen in: (nl)
  • 協和音と不協和音の項目では、和音において、それが協和音とされるのか不協和音とされるのかを解説する。 (ja)
  • Em música, uma consonância (do latim consonare, significando soar junto) é uma harmonia, um acorde ou um intervalo considerado estável, em relação a uma dissonância que é considerada instável. A definição mais restritiva de consonância pode ser aqueles sons que são agradáveis enquanto que a definição geral inclui quaisquer sons que forem usados livremente. (pt)
  • Консонанс и диссонанс (фр. consonance, от лат. consonantia — созвучие, согласное звучание, и фр. dissonance, от лат. dissonantia — неблагозвучие, нестройное звучание; названные латинские термины — переводы, соответственно, др.-греч. συμφωνία и др.-греч. διαφωνία) в теории музыки — категории гармонии, характеризующие слияние или неслияние в восприятии одновременно звучащих тонов, а также сами созвучия (интервалы, аккорды), воспринимаемые/интерпретируемые как «слитные» и «неслитные». (ru)
  • In music, consonance and dissonance form a structural dichotomy in which the terms define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and reciprocally. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant. Consonance and dissonance define a level of sweetness / harshness, pleasantness / unpleasantness, acceptability / unacceptability, of the sounds or intervals under consideration. As Hindemith stressed, "The two concepts have never been completely explained, and for a thousand years the definitions have varied" (, p. 85). (en)
  • Nel linguaggio ordinario con il termine consonanza (dal latino consonare, "suonare insieme") si indica in genere un insieme di suoni eseguiti simultaneamente e tali che l'effetto complessivo risulti morbido e gradevole, mentre con il termine dissonanza, all'opposto, si indica un agglomerato di suoni dall'effetto aspro e stridente. Nella teoria musicale, si definisce più precisamente un intervallo consonante quando è caratterizzato da "stasi armonica" (non ha bisogno di risolvere su un ulteriore intervallo), e dissonante quando, all'orecchio, dà l'impressione di "movimento armonico", di dovere cioè risolvere su un intervallo consonante. Nel linguaggio tecnico della teoria musicale, e in particolare dell'armonia, le due parole hanno significati ben precisi, e anzi si può dire che la contrapp (it)
rdfs:label
  • Consonance and dissonance (en)
  • Consonanza e dissonanza (it)
  • Vals (muziek) (nl)
  • 協和音と不協和音 (ja)
  • Consonância e dissonância (pt)
  • Консонанс и диссонанс (ru)
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