Bonnet's life was uneventful. He seems never to have left the Geneva region, nor does he appear to have taken any part in public affairs except for the period between 1752 and 1768, during which he was a member of the council of the republic. The last twenty five years of his life he spent quietly in the country, at Genthod, near Geneva, where he died after a long and painful illness on 20 May 1793. His wife was a lady of the family of De la Rive. They had no children, but Madame Bonnet's nephew, the celebrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, was brought up as their son.

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dbo:abstract
  • Bonnet's life was uneventful. He seems never to have left the Geneva region, nor does he appear to have taken any part in public affairs except for the period between 1752 and 1768, during which he was a member of the council of the republic. The last twenty five years of his life he spent quietly in the country, at Genthod, near Geneva, where he died after a long and painful illness on 20 May 1793. His wife was a lady of the family of De la Rive. They had no children, but Madame Bonnet's nephew, the celebrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, was brought up as their son. He made law his profession, but his favourite pursuit was the study of natural science. The account of the ant-lion in Noël-Antoine Pluche's Spectacle de la nature, which he read in his sixteenth year, turned his attention to insect life. He procured RAF de Réaumur's work on insects, and with the help of live specimens succeeded in adding many observations to those of Réaumur and Pluche. In 1740, Bonnet communicated to the Academy of Sciences a paper containing a series of experiments establishing what is now termed parthenogenesis in aphids or tree-lice, which obtained for him the honour of being admitted a corresponding member of the academy. During that year he had been in correspondence with his uncle Abraham Trembley who had recently discovered the Hydra. This little creature became the hit of all the salons across Europe once philosophers and natural scientists saw its amazing regenerative capabilities. In 1741, Bonnet began to study reproduction by fusion and the regeneration of lost parts in the freshwater hydra and other animals; and in the following year he discovered that the respiration of caterpillars and butterflies is performed by pores, to which the name of stigmata (or spiracles) has since been given. In 1743, he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society; and in the same year he became a doctor of laws—his last act in connection with a profession which had ever been distasteful to him. In 1753, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and on 15 December 1769 a foreign member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. His first published work appeared in 1745, entitled Traité d'insectologie, in which were collected his various discoveries regarding insects, along with a preface on the development of germs and the scale of organized beings. Botany, particularly the leaves of plants, next attracted his attention; and after several years of diligent study, rendered irksome by the increasing weakness of his eyesight, he published in 1754 one of the most original and interesting of his works, Recherches sur l'usage des feuilles dans les plantes. In this book, he observes that gas bubbles form on plant leaves that have been submerged in water, indicating gas exchange; and among other things he advances many considerations tending to show (as was later done by Francis Darwin) that plants are endowed with powers of sensation and discernment. But Bonnet's eyesight, which threatened to fail altogether, caused him to turn to philosophy. In 1754 his Essai de psychologie was published anonymously in London. This was followed by the Essai analytique sur les facultés de l'âme (Copenhagen, 1760), in which he develops his views regarding the physiological conditions of mental activity. He returned to physical science, but to the speculative side of it, in his Considerations sur les corps organisées (Amsterdam, 1762), designed to refute the theory of epigenesis, and to explain and defend the doctrine of pre-existent germs. In his Contemplation de la nature (Amsterdam, 1764–1765; translated into Italian, German, English and Dutch), one of his most popular and delightful works, he sets forth, in eloquent language, the theory that all the beings in nature form a gradual scale rising from lowest to highest, without any break in its continuity. His last important work was the Palingénésie philosophique (Geneva, 1769–1770); in it he treats of the past and future of living beings, and supports the idea of the survival of all animals, and the perfecting of their faculties in a future state. In 1760 he described a condition now called Charles Bonnet Syndrome, in which vivid, complex visual hallucinations (fictive visual percepts) occur in psychologically normal people. (He documented it in his 87-year-old grandfather, who was nearly blind from cataracts in both eyes but perceived men, women, birds, carriages, buildings, tapestries and scaffolding patterns.) Most people affected are elderly with visual impairments, however the phenomenon does not occur only in the elderly or in those with visual impairments; it can also be caused by damage elsewhere in their optic pathway or brain. Bonnet's philosophical system may be outlined as follows. Man is a compound of two distinct substances, mind and body, the one immaterial and the other material. All knowledge originates in sensations; sensations follow (whether as physical effects or merely as sequents Bonnet will not say) vibrations in the nerves appropriate to each; and lastly, the nerves are made to vibrate by external physical stimulus. A nerve once set in motion by a particular object tends to reproduce that motion; so that when it a second time receives an impression from the same object it vibrates with less resistance. The sensation accompanying this increased flexibility in the nerve is, according to Bonnet, the condition of memory. When reflection—that is, the active element in mind—is applied to the acquisition and combination of sensations, those abstract ideas are formed which, though generally distinguished from, are thus merely sensations in combination only. That which puts the mind into activity is pleasure or pain; happiness is the end of human existence. Bonnet's metaphysical theory is based on two principles borrowed from Leibniz: first, that there are not successive acts of creation, but that the universe is completed by the single original act of the divine will, and thereafter moves on by its own inherent force; and secondly, that there is no break in the continuity of existence. The divine Being originally created a multitude of germs in a graduated scale, each with an inherent power of self-development. At every successive step in the progress of the universe, these germs, as progressively modified, advance nearer to perfection; if some advanced and others did not there would be a gap in the continuity of the chain. Thus not man only but all other forms of existence are immortal. Nor is man's mind alone immortal; his body also will pass into the higher stage, not, indeed, the body he now possesses, but a finer one of which the germ at present exists within him. It is impossible, however, to reach absolute perfection, because the distance is infinite. In this final proposition, Bonnet violates his own principle of continuity, by postulating an interval between the highest created being and the Divine. It is also difficult to understand whether the constant advance to perfection is performed by each individual, or only by each race of beings as a whole. There seems, in fact, to be an oscillation between two distinct but analogous doctrines—that of the constantly increasing advancement of the individual in future stages of existence, and that of the constantly increasing advancement of the race as a whole according to the successive evolutions of the globe. In Philosophical Palingesis, or Ideas on the Past and Future States of Living Beings (1770), Bonnet argued that females carry within them all future generations in a miniature form. He believed these miniature beings, sometimes called homonculi, would be able to survive even great cataclysms such as the biblical Flood; he predicted, moreover, that these catastrophes brought about evolutionary change, and that after the next disaster, men would become angels, mammals would gain intelligence, and so on. Bonnet had an influence on other philosophers and pre-evolutionary thinkers; James Burnett, Lord Monboddo is known to have studied his publications on insects and to have been influenced as he developed concepts on progression of species (evolution). Bonnet's complete works appeared at Neuchâtel in 1779–1783, partly revised by himself. An English translation of certain portions of the Palingénésie philosophique was published in 1787, under the title Philosophical and Critical Inquiries concerning Christianity. See also A Lemoine, Charles Bonnet (Paris, 1850); the duc de Caraman, Charles Bonnet, philosophe et naturaliste (Paris, 1859); Max Offner, Die Psychologie C. B. (Leipzig, 1893); Joh. Speck, in Arch. f. Gesch. d. Philos x. (1897), xi. (1897), pp. 58 foIl., Xi. (1898) pp. 1–211; J Trembley, Vie privée et littéraire de C. B. (Bern, 1794). (en)
  • شارل بونيه (بالفرنسية: Charles Bonnet) عالم تاريخ طبيعي وعلم الإنسان وبيولوجيا وفيلسوف سويسري ولد في جنيف 13 مارس 1720 - 20 مايو 1793 تنسب إليه في الطب متلازمة شارل بونيه (ar)
  • Charles Bonnet (* 13. März 1720 in Genf; † 20. Mai 1793 ebenda, heimatberechtigt in Genf) war ein Schweizer Naturwissenschaftler, Philosoph und Anwalt in der Zeit der Aufklärung. Auf ihn geht die Entdeckung der Parthenogenese zurück. (de)
  • Charles Bonnet (Ginebra, 13 de marzo de 1720 - ibíd. 20 de mayo de 1793) fue un biólogo y filósofo suizo. Fue uno de los principales exponentes de la idea de Scala naturae y fue autor de importantes descubrimientos biológicos, como la partenogénesis. (es)
  • Charles Bonnet, né le 13 mars 1720 à Genève et mort le 20 mai 1793 dans la même ville, est un naturaliste et philosophe genevois. La Suisse le compte aujourd'hui comme sien, la République de Genève, alliée aux Suisses depuis le XVIe siècle, s'étant jointe à la Confédération suisse en mai 1815. On doit à Bonnet la description de la parthénogenèse chez le puceron, mais aussi des travaux sur les régénérations animales, la psychologie, et sur la théorie de la génération. (fr)
  • シャルル・ボネ(Charles Bonnet、1720年3月13日 – 1793年5月20日)は、18世紀のスイスの博物学者・哲学者である。博物学の分野では生物の発生についての先駆的な実験、考察を行った。後に哲学に転じた。 サン・バルテルミの大虐殺後、ユグノーであるゆえ宗教的迫害を受けフランスからスイスに逃れた家系の出身である。ジュネーヴに生まれた。同じく博物学者のアブラハム・トランブレーは従兄にあたる。スイスから出ることなく、1752年から1768年の間、共和国の評議会議員となった時期を除いて、社会的な活動を行うことはなかった。16歳の時にノエル=アントワーヌ・プルーシェの『自然の光景』("Spectacle de la nature")を読み、昆虫の生態に興味を持った。昆虫学者のルネ・レオミュールの著書も読み、自らも昆虫の観察を加えて1740年にアブラムシ(aphids)の「単為生殖」を確認した論文を科学アカデミーに送り、アカデミーの会員に選ばれた。 1741年からヒドラなどの生殖や再生の研究を始めた。1743年に王立協会の会員に選ばれた。1745年に昆虫に関する発見を記述した最初の著書、Traité d'insectologieを出版した。1754年に植物学の著書Recherches sur l'usage des feuilles dans les plantesを出版した。その後、視力を失い哲学に転じた。1760年に視力障害者に特有な幻視の症状「シャルル・ボネ症候群 」の記述をした。 哲学の著書には『有機体論考』(Consideration sur les Corps organises,1762)、『自然の観照』(Contemplation de la Nature,1764)などがある。 (ja)
  • Charles Bonnet (ur. 13 marca 1720 w Genewie, zm. 1793 tamże) – szwajcarski przyrodnik i filozof, członek Królewskiej Szwedzkiej Akademii Nauk. (pl)
  • Charles Bonnet (Genebra, 13 de março de 1720 - 20 de maio de 1793) foi um biólogo e filósofo suíço. Foi um dos principais expoentes da ideia da Scala naturæ e autor de importantes descobertas biológicas como a partenogénese. (pt)
  • Шарль Бонне (фр. Charles Bonnet; 13 марта 1720 — 20 мая 1793) — швейцарский натуралист и философ. (ru)
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  • 1793-05-20 (xsd:date)
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  • شارل بونيه (بالفرنسية: Charles Bonnet) عالم تاريخ طبيعي وعلم الإنسان وبيولوجيا وفيلسوف سويسري ولد في جنيف 13 مارس 1720 - 20 مايو 1793 تنسب إليه في الطب متلازمة شارل بونيه (ar)
  • Charles Bonnet (* 13. März 1720 in Genf; † 20. Mai 1793 ebenda, heimatberechtigt in Genf) war ein Schweizer Naturwissenschaftler, Philosoph und Anwalt in der Zeit der Aufklärung. Auf ihn geht die Entdeckung der Parthenogenese zurück. (de)
  • Charles Bonnet (Ginebra, 13 de marzo de 1720 - ibíd. 20 de mayo de 1793) fue un biólogo y filósofo suizo. Fue uno de los principales exponentes de la idea de Scala naturae y fue autor de importantes descubrimientos biológicos, como la partenogénesis. (es)
  • Charles Bonnet, né le 13 mars 1720 à Genève et mort le 20 mai 1793 dans la même ville, est un naturaliste et philosophe genevois. La Suisse le compte aujourd'hui comme sien, la République de Genève, alliée aux Suisses depuis le XVIe siècle, s'étant jointe à la Confédération suisse en mai 1815. On doit à Bonnet la description de la parthénogenèse chez le puceron, mais aussi des travaux sur les régénérations animales, la psychologie, et sur la théorie de la génération. (fr)
  • Charles Bonnet (ur. 13 marca 1720 w Genewie, zm. 1793 tamże) – szwajcarski przyrodnik i filozof, członek Królewskiej Szwedzkiej Akademii Nauk. (pl)
  • Charles Bonnet (Genebra, 13 de março de 1720 - 20 de maio de 1793) foi um biólogo e filósofo suíço. Foi um dos principais expoentes da ideia da Scala naturæ e autor de importantes descobertas biológicas como a partenogénese. (pt)
  • Шарль Бонне (фр. Charles Bonnet; 13 марта 1720 — 20 мая 1793) — швейцарский натуралист и философ. (ru)
  • Bonnet's life was uneventful. He seems never to have left the Geneva region, nor does he appear to have taken any part in public affairs except for the period between 1752 and 1768, during which he was a member of the council of the republic. The last twenty five years of his life he spent quietly in the country, at Genthod, near Geneva, where he died after a long and painful illness on 20 May 1793. His wife was a lady of the family of De la Rive. They had no children, but Madame Bonnet's nephew, the celebrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, was brought up as their son. (en)
  • シャルル・ボネ(Charles Bonnet、1720年3月13日 – 1793年5月20日)は、18世紀のスイスの博物学者・哲学者である。博物学の分野では生物の発生についての先駆的な実験、考察を行った。後に哲学に転じた。 サン・バルテルミの大虐殺後、ユグノーであるゆえ宗教的迫害を受けフランスからスイスに逃れた家系の出身である。ジュネーヴに生まれた。同じく博物学者のアブラハム・トランブレーは従兄にあたる。スイスから出ることなく、1752年から1768年の間、共和国の評議会議員となった時期を除いて、社会的な活動を行うことはなかった。16歳の時にノエル=アントワーヌ・プルーシェの『自然の光景』("Spectacle de la nature")を読み、昆虫の生態に興味を持った。昆虫学者のルネ・レオミュールの著書も読み、自らも昆虫の観察を加えて1740年にアブラムシ(aphids)の「単為生殖」を確認した論文を科学アカデミーに送り、アカデミーの会員に選ばれた。 哲学の著書には『有機体論考』(Consideration sur les Corps organises,1762)、『自然の観照』(Contemplation de la Nature,1764)などがある。 (ja)
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  • Charles Bonnet (it)
  • シャルル・ボネ (ja)
  • Charles Bonnet (pl)
  • Бонне, Шарль (ru)
  • Charles Bonnet (pt)
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