The Cenomani (Greek: Κενομάνοι, Strabo, Ptol.; Γονομάνοι, Polyb.), was an ancient tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, who occupied the tract north of the Padus (modern Po River), between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east. Their territory appears to have extended from the river Addua (or perhaps the Ollius, the modern Oglio) to the Athesis (modern Adige). Whether these Cenomani are the same people as the Cenomani in Gallia Celtica encountered by Julius Caesar is a subject of debate (see Cenomani).

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  • Les peuples celtes de la péninsule italique étaient, selon les sources latines, d'origine gauloise, sans que leur provenance exacte soit mentionnée : des populations celtiques étaient probablement présentes au nord de la péninsule dès le VIIe siècle avant notre ère (voir culture de Golasecca), mais ce sont surtout des invasions au IVe siècle avant notre ère qui permirent aux Celtes d'entrer dans l'Histoire et de dominer la plaine du Pô : une partie de ces « Gaulois » assiégea notamment Rome vers 390 av. J.-C.. L'ensemble de ces populations ne s'établit pas en Italie, mais les « Gaulois de Cisalpine » étaient eux-mêmes issus de peuples ou de fédérations de peuples qui avaient entrepris une migration et qui s'étaient scindés : d'autres Boïens, par exemple, donnèrent leur nom à la Bohème. Les Gaulois d'Italie fournirent des mercenaires appréciés dans l'ensemble des guerres du monde antique au IIIe siècle avant notre ère, avant d'être soumis par Rome avant la fin du IIIe siècle. Il faut distinguer les populations établies au sud du Pô, chez lesquelles l'acculturation fut plus forte au contact des autres peuples italiques, et les populations établies au nord du Pô qui, plus proches de la Transalpine, conservèrent plus longtemps leur caractère celtique. * Populations établies au sud du Pô * Boïens (Bologne) * Lingons (Province de Ferrare) * Sénons (Arezzo) * Populations établies au nord du Pô * les Cénomans (Cenomani) * les Insubres * Peuplades de moindre importance établies au nord du Pô ; peut-être plus anciennes et dominées un temps par les Insubres : * les Comasques ou Cômasques * les Laevi * les Libici * les Marici * les Orobiens (Orobii, Orumbovii) * les Salasses (Salassi) * les Salyens (Salluvii) (rapport avec les Salyens de la Narbonnaise inconnu) * les Vertamocores (Vertamocorii) (rapport avec les habitants du Vercors inconnu) * autres antérieures au IIIe siècle * les Anares * les Lépontiens (Lepontii) * les Carni (fr)
  • L'espressione Galli cisalpini indica l'insieme delle tribù galliche (celtiche) stanziate in età antica in Gallia cisalpina, un'area corrispondente grosso modo all'odierna Italia settentrionale. Tali gruppi celtici, provenienti dall'Europa centro-occidentale, penetrarono a sud delle Alpi a partire dal 400 a.C. circa e si scontrarono con gli Etruschi e con alcuni popoli dell'Italia antica - inclusi i Romani, di cui saccheggiarono la città nel 390 a.C. In Gallia cisalpina coesistettero con altri popoli, quali i Liguri a ovest, i Reti sulle Alpi e i Veneti a est (tutti popoli che subirono una parziale celtizzazione), mentre a sud, verso gli Appennini, furono a contatto con gli Etruschi e con popolazioni osco-umbre; la loro area d'insediamento stabile più meridionale fu l'Ager Gallicus (odierna costa marchigiana settentrionale), occupato dai Senoni. I Galli vennero sottoposti alla crescente pressione di Roma, che a partire dalla fine del II secolo a.C. iniziò l'occupazione della Gallia cisalpina, la quale verrà definitivamente sottomessa a seguito della seconda guerra punica. Già alcuni anni dopo la definitiva sconfitta dei Galli Cisalpini, in larga parte schieratisi con Annibale durante la guerra, lo storico greco Polibio poteva già personalmente testimoniare la rarefazione dei Celti in pianura padana, espulsi dalla regione o confinati in alcune limitate aree subalpine. La regione, negli anni successivi alla guerra punica, venne definitivamente romanizzata, prima con l'insediamento di numerosi coloni provenienti dall'Italia centro - meridionale, ed infine con la concessione della cittadinanza romana a tutti i suoi abitanti (49 a.C.) e la revoca dello status di provincia e l'inclusione a pieno titolo nell'Italia romana (42 a.C.). I Galli cisalpini erano ripartiti in numerose tribù, spesso in conflitto tra di loro e variamente ibridate con elementi liguri o alpini; tra esse, si contavano Boi, Carni, Cenomani, Gesati, Graioceli, Insubri, Leponzi, Lingoni, Salassi, Senoni, Taurini e Vertamocori. Parlavano tutti una varietà di celtico continentale diversa dal gallico, chiamata lingua leponzia o lepontica. (it)
  • The Cenomani (Greek: Κενομάνοι, Strabo, Ptol.; Γονομάνοι, Polyb.), was an ancient tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, who occupied the tract north of the Padus (modern Po River), between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east. Their territory appears to have extended from the river Addua (or perhaps the Ollius, the modern Oglio) to the Athesis (modern Adige). Whether these Cenomani are the same people as the Cenomani in Gallia Celtica encountered by Julius Caesar is a subject of debate (see Cenomani). Both Polybius and Livy expressly mention them among the tribes of Gauls which had crossed the Alps within historical memory, and had expelled the Etruscans from the territory in which they established themselves and subsequently continued to occupy. (Pol. ii. 17; Liv. v. 35.) Livy relates that about 400 BC, under the leadership of Elitovius (Livy V.35), a large number of the Cenomani crossed into Italy, drove the Etruscans southwards, and occupied their territory. The statement of Cato (in Pliny, Nat. Hist. III.130), that some of them settled near Massilia in the territory of the Volcae, may indicate the route taken by them. It is remarkable that they appear in history almost uniformly as friendly to the Romans, and refusing to take part with their kindred tribes against them. Thus, during the great Gaulish war in 225 BC, when the Boii and Insubres took up arms against Rome, the Cenomani, as well as their neighbours the Veneti, concluded an alliance with the Roman Republic, and the two nations together furnished a force of 20,000 men, with which they threatened the frontier of the Insubres. (Pol. ii. 23, 24, 32; Strab. v. p. 216.) Even when Hannibal invaded Cisalpine Gaul they continued faithful to the Romans, and furnished a body of auxiliaries, who fought with them at the Battle of the Trebia. (Liv. xxi. 55.) After the close of the Second Punic War, however, they took part in the revolt of the Gauls under Hamilcar (200 BC), and again a few years later joined their arms with those of the Insubres: but even then the defection seems to have been but partial, and after their defeat by the consul Gaius Cornelius Cethegus (197 BC), they hastened to submit, and thenceforth continued faithful allies of the Romans. (Liv. xxxi. 10, xxxii. 30, xxxix. 3.) From this time they disappear from history, and became gradually merged in the condition of Roman subjects, until in 49 BC they acquired, with the rest of the Transpadane Gauls, the full rights of Roman citizens. (Dion Cass. xli. 36.) The limits of the territory occupied by them are not very clearly defined. Strabo omits all notice of them in the geographical description of Gallia Cisalpina, and assigns their cities to the Insubres. Livy speaks of Brixia (modern Brescia) and Verona as the chief cities in their territory. Pliny assigns to them Cremona and Brixia: while Ptolemy gives them a much wider extent, comprising not only Bergamum (modern Bergamo) and Mantua, but Tridentum also, which was certainly a Rhaetian city. (Strab. v. p. 213; Liv. v. 35; Plin. iii. 19. s. 23; Ptol. iii. 1. § 31.) It is singular that Polybius, in one passage (ii. 32), appears to describe the river Clusius (modern Chiese), as separating them from the Insubres: but this is probably a mistake. The limits above assigned them, namely, the Addua on the west, the Athesis on the east, and the Padus on the south, may be regarded as approximately correct. The Alpine tribes of the Camunni and the Triumpilini, which bordered on them on the north, are expressly described by Pliny as of Euganean race, and were not therefore nationally connected with the Cenomani, though in his time at least united with them for administrative purposes. (en)
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http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/hypernym
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  • Les peuples celtes de la péninsule italique étaient, selon les sources latines, d'origine gauloise, sans que leur provenance exacte soit mentionnée : des populations celtiques étaient probablement présentes au nord de la péninsule dès le VIIe siècle avant notre ère (voir culture de Golasecca), mais ce sont surtout des invasions au IVe siècle avant notre ère qui permirent aux Celtes d'entrer dans l'Histoire et de dominer la plaine du Pô : une partie de ces « Gaulois » assiégea notamment Rome vers 390 av. J.-C.. (fr)
  • The Cenomani (Greek: Κενομάνοι, Strabo, Ptol.; Γονομάνοι, Polyb.), was an ancient tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, who occupied the tract north of the Padus (modern Po River), between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east. Their territory appears to have extended from the river Addua (or perhaps the Ollius, the modern Oglio) to the Athesis (modern Adige). Whether these Cenomani are the same people as the Cenomani in Gallia Celtica encountered by Julius Caesar is a subject of debate (see Cenomani). (en)
  • L'espressione Galli cisalpini indica l'insieme delle tribù galliche (celtiche) stanziate in età antica in Gallia cisalpina, un'area corrispondente grosso modo all'odierna Italia settentrionale. Tali gruppi celtici, provenienti dall'Europa centro-occidentale, penetrarono a sud delle Alpi a partire dal 400 a.C. circa e si scontrarono con gli Etruschi e con alcuni popoli dell'Italia antica - inclusi i Romani, di cui saccheggiarono la città nel 390 a.C. (it)
rdfs:label
  • Celtes d'Italie (fr)
  • Galli cisalpini (it)
  • Cenomani (Cisalpine Gaul) (en)
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