Bibliography (from Greek βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia, literally "book writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia). Carter and Barker (2010) describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and the systematic, description of books as physical objects (descriptive bibliography).

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  • Een bibliografie is een titellijst met publicaties, thematisch (per periode, per locatie of taalgebied of per onderwerp, per auteur, per type o.i.d. ) en onafhankelijk van de aanwezigheid van de publicaties in een bepaalde collectie. Deze publicaties in een collectie worden opgenomen in een catalogus.
  • Bibliografia (gr. βιβλιο – książka + γραφία – piszę) – termin oznaczający zarówno uporządkowany według pewnych kryteriów i spełniający określone zadania informacyjne wykaz (spis) dokumentów pisanych, jak i dział nauki o utworach piśmiennictwa definiujący zasady tworzenia wspomnianych spisów.
  • 書誌学(しょしがく、英語:bibliography、bibliology)とは、書籍を対象とし、その形態・材料・用途・内容・成立の変遷等の事柄を科学的・実証的に研究する学問のことである。狭義では、個別の書籍を正確に記述した書誌に関する学問を指す。
  • Bibliografi kan antingen betyda en förteckning över böcker enligt ett visst system eller också den vetenskap som sysslar med forskning om böcker som föremål. Den som arbetar med detta kallas bibliograf.
  • Eine Bibliografie (altgr. für „Bücherbeschreibung“, früher auch Bibliognosie oder Bibliologie) ist ein eigenständiges Verzeichnis von Literaturnachweisen bzw. die Erstellung oder die Lehre von der Erstellung eines solchen Verzeichnisses. Früher war Bibliografie auch als Ausdruck für die Bücherkunde allgemein üblich. Während die Monografie eine vollständige Abhandlung über einen Gegenstand beinhaltet, liefert die Bibliografie eine vollständige Übersicht der Literatur zu einem Gegenstand unter einem bestimmten Auswahlkriterium. Die Zusammenstellung der Titel kann je nach Zweckmäßigkeit alphabetisch, systematisch oder auch chronologisch sein, wobei auch der Wert der Titel berücksichtigt werden kann. Bibliografien, die als Teil eines anderen Werkes darin verwendete Literatur nachweisen, werden eher als Literaturverzeichnis bezeichnet. Der Ersteller einer Bibliografie wird Bibliograf genannt.
  • Библиогра́фия (от др. -греч. βιβλιογραφία, βιβλίον  — книга, γράφω  — пишу) — специфическая отрасль информационной деятельности, сущностью которой является информационное управление. ГОСТ 7.0-99 «Информационно-библиотечная деятельность, библиография. Термины и определения» даёт такое определение: «Библиография — информационная инфраструктура, обеспечивающая подготовку, распространение и использование библиографической информации». Важнейшие задачи библиографии — стандартизация библиографической деятельности, в том числе библиографического описания; составление библиографических указателей и индексов цитирования; классификация документов. Библиографическая деятельность изучается в рамках библиографоведения как научной дисциплины.
  • Bibliography (from Greek βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia, literally "book writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia). Carter and Barker (2010) describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and the systematic, description of books as physical objects (descriptive bibliography). These two distinct concepts and practices have separate rationales and serve differing purposes. Innovators and originators in the field include W. W. Greg, Fredson Bowers, Philip Gaskell, and G. Thomas Tanselle. Bowers (1949) refers to enumerative bibliography as a procedure that identifies books in “specific collections or libraries,” in a specific discipline, by an author, printer, or period of production (3). He refers to descriptive bibliography as the systematic description of a book as a material or physical artifact. Analytical bibliography, the cornerstone of descriptive bibliography, investigates the printing and all physical features of a book that yield evidence establishing a book's history and transmission (Feather 10). It is the preliminary phase of bibliographic description and provides the vocabulary, principles and techniques of analysis that descriptive bibliographers apply and on which they base their descriptive practice. Descriptive bibliographers follow specific conventions and associated classification in their description. Titles and title pages are transcribed in a quasi-facsimile style and representation. Illustration, typeface, binding, paper, and all physical elements related to identifying a book follow formulaic conventions, as Bower's established in his foundational opus, The Principles of Bibliographic Description. The thought expressed in this book expands substantively on W. W. Greg’s groundbreaking theory that argued for the adoption of formal bibliographic principles (Greg 29). Fundamentally, analytical bibliography is concerned with objective, physical analysis and history of a book while descriptive bibliography employs all data that analytical bibliography furnishes and then codifies it with a view to identifying the ideal copy or form of a book that most nearly represents the printer’s initial conception and intention in printing. In addition to viewing bibliographic study as being composed of four interdependent approaches: enumerative, descriptive, analytical, and textual, Bowers notes two further subcategories of research, namely historical bibliography and aesthetic bibliography. Both historical bibliography, which involves the investigation of printing practices, tools, and related documents, and aesthetic bibliography, which examines the art of designing type and books, are often employed by analytical bibliographers. D. F. McKenzie extended previous notions of bibliography as set forth by W. W. Greg, Bowers, Gaskell and Tanselle. He describes the nature of bibliography as "the discipline that studies texts as recorded forms, and the processes of their transmission, including their production and reception" (1999 12). This concept broadens the scope of bibliography to include "non-book texts" and an accounting for their material form and structure, as well as textual variations, technical and production processes that bring sociocultural context and effects into play. McKenzie's perspective contextualizes textual objects or artifacts with sociological and technical factors that have an effect on production, transmission and, ultimately, ideal copy (2002 14). Bibliography, generally, concerns the material conditions of books [as well as other texts] how they are designed, edited, printed, circulated, reprinted, collected. Bibliographic works differ in the amount of detail depending on the purpose and can generally be divided into two categories: enumerative bibliography (also called compilative, reference or systematic), which results in an overview of publications in a particular category and analytical or critical bibliography, which studies the production of books. In earlier times, bibliography mostly focused on books. Now, both categories of bibliography cover works in other media including audio recordings, motion pictures and videos, graphic objects, databases, CD-ROMs and websites.
  • La bibliografía es el estudio de referencia de los textos. Proviene del griego βιβλίο (biblío): ‘libros’, y γράφω (gráfo): ‘escribir’.
  • Une bibliographie est une liste structurée de références d'ouvrages ou d'autres documents, notamment d'articles de revues, ayant des caractéristiques communes. L'existence d'autres supports de communication a fait apparaître, sur le même modèle, les termes de filmographie, de discographie et de webographie. Une bibliographie se différencie d'un inventaire et d'un catalogue, en particulier des catalogues de bibliothèques destinés non pas à identifier des publications mais à les repérer et surtout en localiser des exemplaires dans une ou plusieurs bibliothèques. La discipline qui s'occupe des bibliographies, c'est-à-dire des répertoires de références de livres, s'appelle aussi bibliographie. Une bibliographie est une liste de références de livres, tandis que la bibliographie est « la discipline concernant la recherche, le signalement, la description et le classement des textes imprimés ou multigraphiés dans le but de constituer des répertoires de livres destinés à faciliter la recherche intellectuelle ». Le mot bibliographie désigne ainsi la science bibliographique ou un répertoire bibliographique : la mise en œuvre et l'objet qui en résulte. Au XIXe siècle, on retrouve plusieurs initiatives développées en France et en Belgique autour de ces deux acceptions : l'Office International de Bibliographie créé en 1895 par Paul Otlet et Henri La Fontaine et le Bureau Bibliograhique de Paris initié par le général Hyppolite Sébert et ses collègues belges.
  • Per bibliografia (dal greco βιβλίον biblìon, "libro", e γράφω gràpho, "scrivere", benché i greci non abbiano mai combinato tali termini nel senso odierno) enumerativa (o sistematica) si può intendere: l'elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli su un particolare argomento o su uno specifico autore; l'insieme dei saggi scritti su un determinato argomento; l'elenco di pubblicazioni usate e citate nella stesura specialmente di un saggio, di un articolo, di un libro; la scienza che studia la catalogazione sistematica dei libri. Da ricordare che la bibliografia definita analitica (o critica), altrimenti detta bibliologia, si occupa invece degli aspetti fisici dei singoli libri (caratteri, impaginazione, carta, ecc.).
  • Uma bibliografia é uma lista estruturada de referências a livros ou outros documentos, designadamente artigos de periódicos, com características comuns, como por exemplo, o mesmo autor ou o mesmo assunto. Uma bibliografia é constituída por referências bibliográficas, ou seja, pela identificação de cada uma das obras que constitui a bibliografia, através de elementos como o autor, o título, o local de edição, a editora e outros. A primeira bibliografia publicada data de 1494 (Liber de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis). Já a primeira bibliografia universal é de 1545 (Biblioteca universalis, de Conrad Gesner). A primeira bibliografia nacional é inglesa e foi consagrada aos escrivãos. Embora a palavra bibliografia só tenha surgido em 1633, a atividade que ela designa remonta à Antiguidade: catálogo, repertório, índice, inventário, e todas as formas pelas quais os eruditos têm procurado reunir, sobre um assunto ou dentro de uma disciplina, à informação mais completa. A partir do século XVIII, a bibliografia se diversificou, tornando-se uma "ciência do livro", apurada no século XX com as técnicas de documentação. Mais recentemente, com a invenção do meio virtual, a palavra bibliografia pôde englobar não só seus sentidos com livros e documentos impressos ou manuscritos, mas também com os ditos e-books (livros eletrônicos) e outros meios de publicação digital, entre eles a internet.
  • 目录学,是图书馆学的一门分支学科,研究文献目录工作的一般原理及形成和发展的一般规律。 班固撰寫《汉书叙传》,始有“目录”之名。劉向、劉歆父子整理圖書,著有《別錄》、《七略》,開中國目錄學之先河。清代著名学者如金榜、王鸣盛、姚振宗等人的大力提倡目录学。王鳴盛《十七史商榷》卷一:“目錄之學,學中第一緊要事,必從此問途,方能得其門而入。” 梁啟超認為佛家書目優勝於普通目錄者有五點:“一曰歷史觀念甚發達。凡一書之傳譯淵源、譯人小傳、譯時、譯地,靡不詳敘;二曰辨別真偽極嚴。凡可疑之書,皆詳審考證,別存其目;三曰比較甚審。凡一書而同時或先後異譯者,輒詳為序列,勘其異同得失;在一叢書中抽譯一二種,或在一書中抽譯一二篇而別題書名者,皆各求其出處,分別註明,使學者毋惑;四曰搜采遺逸甚勤。雖已佚之書,亦必存其目,以俟采訪,令學者得按照某時代之錄而知其書佚於何時;五曰分類極復雜而周備。或以著譯時代分,或以書之性質分。性質之中,或以書之涵義內容分,如既分經律論,又分大小乘;或以書之形式分,如一譯多譯,一卷多卷等等。同一錄中,各種分類並用。……不能不嘆劉《略》、班《誌》、荀《簿》、阮《錄》之太簡單、太樸素,且痛惜於後此種作者之無進步也。”余嘉锡认为目录学的根本意义在于“辨章学术,考镜源流”。 目录学的分支学科有: 普通目录学 专科目录学 比较目录学 版本目录学
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  • Een bibliografie is een titellijst met publicaties, thematisch (per periode, per locatie of taalgebied of per onderwerp, per auteur, per type o.i.d. ) en onafhankelijk van de aanwezigheid van de publicaties in een bepaalde collectie. Deze publicaties in een collectie worden opgenomen in een catalogus.
  • Eine Bibliografie (altgr. für „Bücherbeschreibung“, früher auch Bibliognosie oder Bibliologie) ist ein eigenständiges Verzeichnis von Literaturnachweisen bzw. die Erstellung oder die Lehre von der Erstellung eines solchen Verzeichnisses. Früher war Bibliografie auch als Ausdruck für die Bücherkunde allgemein üblich.
  • Bibliografia (gr. βιβλιο – książka + γραφία – piszę) – termin oznaczający zarówno uporządkowany według pewnych kryteriów i spełniający określone zadania informacyjne wykaz (spis) dokumentów pisanych, jak i dział nauki o utworach piśmiennictwa definiujący zasady tworzenia wspomnianych spisów.
  • Per bibliografia (dal greco βιβλίον biblìon, "libro", e γράφω gràpho, "scrivere", benché i greci non abbiano mai combinato tali termini nel senso odierno) enumerativa (o sistematica) si può intendere: l'elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli su un particolare argomento o su uno specifico autore; l'insieme dei saggi scritti su un determinato argomento; l'elenco di pubblicazioni usate e citate nella stesura specialmente di un saggio, di un articolo, di un libro; la scienza che studia la catalogazione sistematica dei libri.
  • 書誌学(しょしがく、英語:bibliography、bibliology)とは、書籍を対象とし、その形態・材料・用途・内容・成立の変遷等の事柄を科学的・実証的に研究する学問のことである。狭義では、個別の書籍を正確に記述した書誌に関する学問を指す。
  • Библиогра́фия (от др. -греч. βιβλιογραφία, βιβλίον  — книга, γράφω  — пишу) — специфическая отрасль информационной деятельности, сущностью которой является информационное управление. ГОСТ 7.0-99 «Информационно-библиотечная деятельность, библиография. Термины и определения» даёт такое определение: «Библиография — информационная инфраструктура, обеспечивающая подготовку, распространение и использование библиографической информации».
  • Bibliografi kan antingen betyda en förteckning över böcker enligt ett visst system eller också den vetenskap som sysslar med forskning om böcker som föremål. Den som arbetar med detta kallas bibliograf.
  • Bibliography (from Greek βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia, literally "book writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia). Carter and Barker (2010) describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and the systematic, description of books as physical objects (descriptive bibliography).
  • La bibliografía es el estudio de referencia de los textos. Proviene del griego βιβλίο (biblío): ‘libros’, y γράφω (gráfo): ‘escribir’.
  • Une bibliographie est une liste structurée de références d'ouvrages ou d'autres documents, notamment d'articles de revues, ayant des caractéristiques communes. L'existence d'autres supports de communication a fait apparaître, sur le même modèle, les termes de filmographie, de discographie et de webographie.
  • Uma bibliografia é uma lista estruturada de referências a livros ou outros documentos, designadamente artigos de periódicos, com características comuns, como por exemplo, o mesmo autor ou o mesmo assunto. Uma bibliografia é constituída por referências bibliográficas, ou seja, pela identificação de cada uma das obras que constitui a bibliografia, através de elementos como o autor, o título, o local de edição, a editora e outros.
  • 目录学,是图书馆学的一门分支学科,研究文献目录工作的一般原理及形成和发展的一般规律。 班固撰寫《汉书叙传》,始有“目录”之名。劉向、劉歆父子整理圖書,著有《別錄》、《七略》,開中國目錄學之先河。清代著名学者如金榜、王鸣盛、姚振宗等人的大力提倡目录学。王鳴盛《十七史商榷》卷一:“目錄之學,學中第一緊要事,必從此問途,方能得其門而入。” 梁啟超認為佛家書目優勝於普通目錄者有五點:“一曰歷史觀念甚發達。凡一書之傳譯淵源、譯人小傳、譯時、譯地,靡不詳敘;二曰辨別真偽極嚴。凡可疑之書,皆詳審考證,別存其目;三曰比較甚審。凡一書而同時或先後異譯者,輒詳為序列,勘其異同得失;在一叢書中抽譯一二種,或在一書中抽譯一二篇而別題書名者,皆各求其出處,分別註明,使學者毋惑;四曰搜采遺逸甚勤。雖已佚之書,亦必存其目,以俟采訪,令學者得按照某時代之錄而知其書佚於何時;五曰分類極復雜而周備。或以著譯時代分,或以書之性質分。性質之中,或以書之涵義內容分,如既分經律論,又分大小乘;或以書之形式分,如一譯多譯,一卷多卷等等。同一錄中,各種分類並用。……不能不嘆劉《略》、班《誌》、荀《簿》、阮《錄》之太簡單、太樸素,且痛惜於後此種作者之無進步也。”余嘉锡认为目录学的根本意义在于“辨章学术,考镜源流”。 目录学的分支学科有: 普通目录学 专科目录学 比较目录学 版本目录学
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  • Bibliografia
  • 書誌学
  • Bibliografie
  • Bibliografia
  • Библиография
  • Bibliografi
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