The Battle of Berlin was the British bombing campaign on Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944. Not limited solely to Berlin, the campaign targeted other German cities as well, to prevent the concentration of defences in Berlin. The campaign was launched by Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, AOC of RAF Bomber Command in November 1943. Harris believed this could be the blow that broke German resistance: "We can wreck Berlin from end to end if the USAAF come in with us. It will cost us between 400 and 500 aircraft. It will cost Germany the war". By this time he could deploy over 800 long-range bombers on any given night, equipped with new and more sophisticated navigational devices such as H2S radar. Between November 1943 and March 1944, Bomber Command made 16 massed attacks on Berlin.

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dbo:abstract
  • La battaglia aerea di Berlino fu lo scontro tra i bombardieri britannici ed i caccia e la contraerea tedeschi sul cielo di Berlino, ma non solo, durante la seconda guerra mondiale. Nel marzo 1944, verso la fine della battaglia, intervennero anche i velivoli della Eighth Air Force statunitense. Le incursioni aeree su Berlino iniziarono già nel 1940, durante la battaglia d'Inghilterra, quando gli inglesi lanciarono bombe sulla capitale, producendo però pochi e insignificanti effetti. I bombardamenti su larga scala ci furono solo a partire dal 1943, quando i bombardieri inglesi e americani rovesciarono su Berlino migliaia di tonnellate di bombe, devastando la città e distruggendone le industrie. Alla fine del 1943 circa 15.000 tonnellate di bombe erano state lanciate sulla capitale tedesca, ma questo era costato agli Alleati oltre 1.000 aerei. Per "battaglia aerea di Berlino" si intende anche quella combattuta tra i tedeschi ed i sovietici dal 16 aprile al 2 maggio 1945. Qui, i soldati di Stalin avevano circa 7.500 aerei contro i 1.700 tedeschi, il che garantì loro una netta superiorità numerica. Nelle prime giornate quindi i caccia tedeschi, pur battendosi validamente, subirono gravi perdite e gli aerei sovietici poterono bombardare le colonne corazzate nemiche, contribuendo alla vittoria. (it)
  • La bataille aérienne de Berlin est une campagne de bombardement anglo-américaine sur Berlin qui se déroula de novembre 1943 à mars 1944 pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. La campagne ne se limita cependant pas à Berlin, d'autres villes allemandes furent attaquées afin d'éviter une trop forte concentration des défenses sur Berlin, sachant que le Bomber Command britannique avait d'autres responsabilités et menait en même temps d'autres campagnes. La campagne fut lancée par Arthur "Bomber" Harris, Air Officer Commanding du RAF Bomber Command en novembre 1943. Harris croyait en effet que cette offensive permettrait de casser la résistance allemande : « It will cost us between 400 and 500 aircraft. It will cost Germany the war. » (cela va nous coûter entre 400 et 500 avions. Mais cela va coûter à l'Allemagne la guerre.). À cette époque, il pouvait déployer plus de 800 bombardiers longue portée sur une nuit, équipés de nouveaux outils de navigation sophistiqués comme le radar H2S. Entre novembre 1943 et mars 1944, le Bomber Command déclencha 16 attaques de masse sur Berlin. Il doit équitablement être rappelé que la RAF ne fut pas la première sur Berlin. Le premier bombardement fut effectué par un quadrimoteur de l'aéronautique navale française, le Farman Jules Verne, en juin 1940. Il est généralement considéré que la bataille aérienne de Berlin fut un échec pour la Royal Air Force (RAF), car le choc sur l'Allemagne ne fut pas celui prédit par Harris, et par la fait que durant la bataille la RAF a perdu 1 047 bombardiers, auxquels il faut ajouter 1 682 endommagés et 7 000 membres d'équipage, avec pour point culminant le raid sur Nuremberg le 30 mars 1944, où 94 bombardiers furent abattus et 71 endommagés sur les 795 déployés. Peu avant la bataille aérienne de Berlin, Berlin a aussi fait l'objet d'un large raid aérien de 700 appareils la nuit du 23 au 24 août 1943. Un raid comportant moitié moins d'appareils a de même eu lieu en septembre, subissant des pertes de 7 %. (fr)
  • The Battle of Berlin was the British bombing campaign on Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944. Not limited solely to Berlin, the campaign targeted other German cities as well, to prevent the concentration of defences in Berlin. The campaign was launched by Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, AOC of RAF Bomber Command in November 1943. Harris believed this could be the blow that broke German resistance: "We can wreck Berlin from end to end if the USAAF come in with us. It will cost us between 400 and 500 aircraft. It will cost Germany the war". By this time he could deploy over 800 long-range bombers on any given night, equipped with new and more sophisticated navigational devices such as H2S radar. Between November 1943 and March 1944, Bomber Command made 16 massed attacks on Berlin. The USAAF, having recently suffered heavy losses in its attacks on Schweinfurt from which it was still recovering, was unable to participate. It is generally accepted that the Battle of Berlin was a failure for the Royal Air Force (RAF) as it was not the knockout blow that Harris had predicted. The RAF lost 1,047 bombers, with a further 1,682 damaged, and well over 7,000 aircrew, culminating in the raid on Nuremberg on 30 March 1944, when 94 bombers were shot down and 71 were damaged, out of 795 aircraft. There were many other raids on Berlin by the RAF and the USAAF Eighth Air Force in the strategic bombing campaign of 1940–45 and this is reflected in the RAF battle honour, which is for the bombardment of Berlin by aircraft of Bomber Command from 1940–45. In response to attacks on German cities, the Luftwaffe began Operation Steinbock (Capricorn)—a series of attacks on London. The Germans suffered heavy losses, but they persisted until May 1944. Over every mission during Steinbock, attacking formations suffered a higher loss percentage than the RAF sustained over Germany. Although primarily a British operation, Australian and Canadian bomber squadrons also took part in the battle, under the command of RAF Bomber Command. (en)
  • O termo Batalha de Berlim é algumas vez utilizado restritamente para a campanha de bombardeamento de Berlim da Royal Air Force, entre Novembro 1943 e Março 1944. O Comando de Bombardeamento organizou dezesseis ataques principais na capital alemã. Durante os ataques a RAF destruiu mais de 24 km² e perdeu 450 aviões. Arthur Harris planejou reduzir a cidade a nada mais que escombros para atingir a vitória. Harris queria também reduzir as baixas entre os soldados aliados, tentando evitar a necessidade de entrar em Berlim por terra. (pt)
  • Powietrzna bitwa o Berlin – seria brytyjskich nalotów bombowych na Berlin dokonywanych od listopada 1943 do marca 1944 roku. Kampania nie ograniczała się wyłącznie do Berlina. Bombardowane były też, celem zapobieżenia koncentracji niemieckich myśliwców nad stolicą, inne miasta niemieckie (na przykład Hamburg, Kolonia, Brema, Magdeburg). Pomysłodawcą i rozkazodawcą operacji był Arthur "Bomber" Harris, dowódca RAF Bomber Command w listopadzie 1943 roku. Harris uważał, że w ten sposób złamie niemiecki opór: „stracimy 400 do 500 samolotów, ale Niemcy przegrają wojnę”. W tym czasie Harris mógł rzucić do ataku każdej nocy ponad 800 bombowców dalekiego zasięgu wyposażonych w coraz nowocześniejsze urządzenia nawigacyjne, jak choćby radar H2S. W okresie od listopada 1943 do marca 1944 roku Bomber Command przeprowadziło 16 zmasowanych ataków na Berlin. (pl)
dbo:causalties
  • KIA
  • "over Berlin"
  • * 2,690 crewmen
  • * 500 aircraft
  • * Bomber Command
  • * nearly 1,000 POW
  • a 5.8% loss rate
dbo:commander
dbo:date
  • 1943-11-18 (xsd:date)
dbo:isPartOfMilitaryConflict
dbo:place
dbo:result
  • German victory
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dbp:caption
  • The ruins of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church
dbp:casualties
  • * ~4,000 killed * 10,000 injured * 450,000 homeless
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  • O termo Batalha de Berlim é algumas vez utilizado restritamente para a campanha de bombardeamento de Berlim da Royal Air Force, entre Novembro 1943 e Março 1944. O Comando de Bombardeamento organizou dezesseis ataques principais na capital alemã. Durante os ataques a RAF destruiu mais de 24 km² e perdeu 450 aviões. Arthur Harris planejou reduzir a cidade a nada mais que escombros para atingir a vitória. Harris queria também reduzir as baixas entre os soldados aliados, tentando evitar a necessidade de entrar em Berlim por terra. (pt)
  • The Battle of Berlin was the British bombing campaign on Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944. Not limited solely to Berlin, the campaign targeted other German cities as well, to prevent the concentration of defences in Berlin. The campaign was launched by Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, AOC of RAF Bomber Command in November 1943. Harris believed this could be the blow that broke German resistance: "We can wreck Berlin from end to end if the USAAF come in with us. It will cost us between 400 and 500 aircraft. It will cost Germany the war". By this time he could deploy over 800 long-range bombers on any given night, equipped with new and more sophisticated navigational devices such as H2S radar. Between November 1943 and March 1944, Bomber Command made 16 massed attacks on Berlin. (en)
  • La battaglia aerea di Berlino fu lo scontro tra i bombardieri britannici ed i caccia e la contraerea tedeschi sul cielo di Berlino, ma non solo, durante la seconda guerra mondiale. Nel marzo 1944, verso la fine della battaglia, intervennero anche i velivoli della Eighth Air Force statunitense. (it)
  • La bataille aérienne de Berlin est une campagne de bombardement anglo-américaine sur Berlin qui se déroula de novembre 1943 à mars 1944 pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. La campagne ne se limita cependant pas à Berlin, d'autres villes allemandes furent attaquées afin d'éviter une trop forte concentration des défenses sur Berlin, sachant que le Bomber Command britannique avait d'autres responsabilités et menait en même temps d'autres campagnes. La campagne fut lancée par Arthur "Bomber" Harris, Air Officer Commanding du RAF Bomber Command en novembre 1943. Harris croyait en effet que cette offensive permettrait de casser la résistance allemande : « It will cost us between 400 and 500 aircraft. It will cost Germany the war. » (cela va nous coûter entre 400 et 500 avions. Mais cela va coûte (fr)
  • Powietrzna bitwa o Berlin – seria brytyjskich nalotów bombowych na Berlin dokonywanych od listopada 1943 do marca 1944 roku. Kampania nie ograniczała się wyłącznie do Berlina. Bombardowane były też, celem zapobieżenia koncentracji niemieckich myśliwców nad stolicą, inne miasta niemieckie (na przykład Hamburg, Kolonia, Brema, Magdeburg). (pl)
rdfs:label
  • Battle of Berlin (RAF campaign) (en)
  • Battaglia aerea di Berlino (it)
  • Bataille aérienne de Berlin (fr)
  • Batalha de Berlim (aérea) (pt)
  • Powietrzna bitwa o Berlin (pl)
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