The Battle of Arretium, which was probably fought in 283 BC, is a poorly documented event in the History of the Roman Republic because it occurred in a period for which some of the books of the Roman History by Livy, the most thorough ancient historian for early Rome, have been lost. The battle is only explicitly referred to in a text by Polybius, the ancient Greek historian, which does not give much detail and puts it in the context of other events. A text by Appian talks about these events, but does not make any explicit reference to the Battle of Arretium. It was fought between the Romans and Gauls of northern Italy who may have been from the Senone tribe.

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dbo:abstract
  • La batalla de Arretium fue un conflicto militar sucedido en c. 284 a. C. entre la República Romana y algunas tribus celtas, principalmente los senones y los boyos. Lucio Cecilio Metelo Denter era el comandante del ejército romano con el título de cónsul (de pretor urbano o de procónsul si la batalla se desarrolló a comienzos de 283 a. C.). Los galos ganaron la batalla destruyendo a las fuerzas romanas y matando supuestamente a Cecilio y a siete tribunos militares. La victoria celta abrió el camino para restablecer la coalición entre celtas, etruscos y umbros en contra de Roma y dando paso a la invasión celta de 283 a. C. Existe mucha confusión en cuanto al año de la batalla y el puesto militar que ocupaba el comandante romano, Cecilio. En general, hay tres versiones de la batalla, la de Polibio, la analista (Floro, Eutropio, Orosio, etc.) y la de Apiano. (es)
  • The Battle of Arretium, which was probably fought in 283 BC, is a poorly documented event in the History of the Roman Republic because it occurred in a period for which some of the books of the Roman History by Livy, the most thorough ancient historian for early Rome, have been lost. The battle is only explicitly referred to in a text by Polybius, the ancient Greek historian, which does not give much detail and puts it in the context of other events. A text by Appian talks about these events, but does not make any explicit reference to the Battle of Arretium. It was fought between the Romans and Gauls of northern Italy who may have been from the Senone tribe. According to Polybius, unspecified Gauls besieged the city of Arretium (Arezzo, in north-eastern Tuscany) and defeated a Roman force which had come to the aid of the city. Their commander, the praetor Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter died in the battle. This would place the battle in 283 BC because Denter was a consul in 284 BC. In Polybius’ account after the battle Denter was replaced by Manius Curius Dentatus, who sent envoys to negotiate the release of Roman hostages, but they were killed. The Romans marched on Gaul and they were met by the Senones who were defeated in a pitched battle. The Senones were one of the Gallic tribes which lived in northern Italy. Polybius used the highly generic term Gaul. He meant Gallia Cisalpina (Gaul this side of the Alp from the Roman geographical viewpoint) which was the name the Romans gave the area of the Gauls of northern Italy (as opposed to Gallia Transalpina, Gaul the other side of the Alps, which referred to what is now southern France). It can be assumed that this clash with the Senones occurred in the ager Gallicus (the name the Romans gave to the area which had been conquered by the Senones), on the Adriatic coast (in modern Marche) as Polybius wrote that "the Romans invaded the territory of the Senones, killed most of them and drove the rest out of the country and founded the colony of Sena Gallia (Senigallia)". Polybius did not specify who led this Roman campaign. He also wrote that "[h]ereupon the Boii, seeing the Senones expelled from their territory, and fearing a like fate for themselves and their own land, implored the aid of the Etruscans and marched out in full force. The united armies gave battle to the Romans near Lake Vadimon, and in this battle most of the Etruscans were cut to pieces while only quite a few of the Boii escaped." He also wrote that the next year the Boii and the Etruscans engaged the Romans in battle again and "were utterly defeated and it was only now that their courage at length gave way and that they sent an embassy to sue for terms and made a treaty with the Romans." Appian wrote about the wars between Rome and the Gauls in Italy and Gaul and Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul (Gallic Wars 1, 2, and 3 of his Roman History). However, his work has survived only in fragments which are often short and sometimes do not shed enough light on events. He wrote about events in 283 BC and mentioned a battle fought against the Romans by a Gallic and Etruscan force without mentioning where it was. This fragment concentrates on an incident which involved Roman ambassadors and Roman actions in the ager Gallicus (the land of the Senones). According to Appian, the Romans sent their ambassadors specifically to the Senones and for a different reason. The Senones had provided mercenaries to forces which had fought against Rome despite the fact that they had a treaty with Rome. The Romans sent ambassadors to remonstrate against this. Appian wrote that "Britomaris, the Gaul, being incensed against them on account of his father, who had been killed by the Romans while fighting on the side of the Etruscans in this very war, slew the ambassadors" while they were still holding the herald’s staff. He added some details which are most probably fictive and reflections of prejudice towards barbarians. He wrote that Britomaris wore their official garments and "cut their bodies in small pieces and scattered them in the fields." Publius Cornelius Dolabella, (the consul for 283 BC) "while he was on the march, moved with great speed" to the ager Gallicus "by way of the Sabine country and Picenum" and laid it to waste: "He ravaged them all [the Senones] with fire and sword. He reduced the women and children to slavery, killed all the adult males without exception, devastated the country in every possible way, and made it uninhabitable for anybody else." Appian added that "[a] little later the Senones (who were serving as mercenaries), having no longer any homes to return to, fell boldly upon the consul Domitius, and being defeated by him killed themselves in despair. Appian’s text is unclear and confusing. He does not link the ambassadors’ event to the siege and battle at Arretium. He does not mention where the ambassadors met Britomaris either. The fact his father was killed by the Romans while fighting on the side of the Etruscans in the same war could suggest that this previous fighting was the battle of Lake Vadimon, which involved a combined Etruscan and Gallic army (the Battle of Arretium involved Gauls only). The second battle mentioned by Polybius, in which the Etruscans and Gauls were defeated again and sued for peace, may well correspond with the second battle mentioned by Appian. However, while Polybius places this second battle against an Etrusco-Gallic force in the next year (284 BC), Appian claims that it was won by Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus Maximus, who was the other consul for 283 BC. Appian did not mention the Boii Gauls in the second battle. It does not seem that there is a reference to the battle of Arretium as there is no mention of a siege, of a battle between Romans and Gauls only, or Roman prisoners, and the purpose of the Roman embassy was different. The lack of mention of where the battles were fought compounds the problem. There also may to be a discrepancy between the sequence of events presented by Polybius and the sequence which may be inferred from Appian's text: Polybius: Battle of Arretium - devastation of the ager Gallicus - Battle of Lake Vadimon - final battle. Appian : Battle of Lake Vadimon - devastation of the ager Gallicus - final battle (no reference to a battle of Arretium). Forsythe maintains that at the battle of Arretium the Romans suffered a crushing defeat resulting in the death of the general, seven military tribunes [officers seconded to the commanders] and thirteen thousand Roman soldiers. He draws these figures from St Augustine and Orosius. However, it has to be noted that these two authors wrote in the early fifth century AD, some seven hundred years after the battle. Both were clergymen and Christian writers. The Books of both authors in which they mentioned this battle were apologetic of Christianity and were aimed at showing that the world had improved with Christianity and that many disasters had happened in the pagan days. Orosius also collaborated with Augustine on the latter's book (The City of God) and his text is remarkably similar to that of St Augustine's. Both authors also wrote of a coalition of Lucanians, Brutians, Samnites, Etruscans, and Senone Gauls. This never happened, there had been a coalition of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians and Senone Gauls (but not Lucanians or Brutians) which fought Rome at the Battle of Sentinum 11/12 years earlier (in 295 BC), during the Third Samnite War (298–290 BC). Both this and the purpose of their writing may cast doubts on their accuracy. Moreover, although the consuls for the year are mentioned, Arretium is not. St Augustune wrote: "... at one time, the Lucanians, Brutians, Samnites, Tuscans, and Senonian Gauls conspired against Rome, and first slew her ambassadors, then overthrew an army under the prætor, putting to the sword 13,000 men, besides the commander and seven tribunes[.]" Orosius wrote... during the consulship of Dolabella and Domitius, the Lucanians, Bruttians, and Samnites made an alliance with the Etruscans and Senonian Gauls, who were attempting to renew war against the Romans. The Romans sent ambassadors to dissuade the Gauls from joining this alliance, but the Gauls killed the envoys. The praetor Caecilius was sent with an army to avenge their murder and to crush the uprising of the enemy. He was, however, overwhelmed by the Etruscans and Gauls, and perished. Seven military tribunes were also slain in that battle, many nobles were killed, and thirty thousand soldiers likewise met their death. (en)
  • La bataille d'Arretium s'inscrit dans une succession de conflits entre Romains et tribus gauloises de Gaule transalpine et de Gaule cisalpine qui tentent de s'étendre en Italie septentrionale. La bataille prend place indirectement dans la conquête romaine de l'Étrurie. Elle oppose en 284 ou 283 av. J.-C. une armée de la République romaine à diverses tribus des Sénons. Les Romains essuient une lourde défaite durant laquelle leur général Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter est tué. Malgré ce revers, les Romains parviennent à reprendre la situation en main, repoussent les Gaulois et imposent leur suprématie sur l'Étrurie, mais cela nécessite plusieurs années de campagnes supplémentaires. (fr)
  • La battaglia di Arezzo fu combattuta nel 285 a.C. tra la Repubblica romana e i Galli. Il comandante dell'esercito romano era Lucio Cecilio Metello Denter. I Galli vinsero la battaglia, distruggendo l'esercito romano. La città venne brevemente sottoposta all'occupazione gallica prima di essere riconquistata dai romani durante la controffensiva. L'esercito romano in poche ore sconfisse duramente i Galli e li costrinse a ritirarsi nell'Italia settentrionale. (it)
  • De Slag bij Arretium werd uitgevochten in 284 v.Chr. tussen de Romeinse Republiek en de Galliërs. Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter was de bevelhebber van het Romeinse leger. De Galliërs wonnen het gevecht door de Romeinse strijdmacht te vernietigen. (nl)
  • Bitwa pod Arretium – starcie zbrojne, które miało miejsce między Rzymianami i Senonami w Etrurii w roku 284 p.n.e. lub 283 p.n.e. Według greckiego historyka Polibiusza, 10 lat po bitwie pod Sentinum Galowie oblegli Arretium. Przeciwko nim została wysłana armia rzymska pod wodzą Lucjusza Cecyliusza Metellusa Dentera. Rzymianie ponieśli klęskę, w starciu zginął Lucjusz Cecyliusz Metellus Denter wraz z większością żołnierzy. Według chrześcijańskiego historyka Pawła Orozjusza w bitwie wraz z Galami brali również udział Etruskowie, a po stronie rzymskiej miało zginąć 13 tysięcy żołnierzy, w tym dowódca i siedmiu trybunów. (pl)
  • アレティウムの戦い (おそらく紀元前283年)は、共和政ローマ時代に行われた、ローマ人とおそらくセノネス族の一部であろう北イタリアのガリア人との戦いである。 詳細な記述で知られるリウィウスの書物が完全な形で残っていれば資料に困らなかったろうが、この戦いは古代ギリシアの歴史家であるポリュビオスの記述にしか明確な言及はなく、しかも他の出来事のおまけ扱いで、アッピアノスに至っては全く言及していない。 (ja)
  • A Batalha de Arrécio, que foi provavelmente travada em 283/4 a.C., é um evento parcamente documentada na história da República Romana por ter ocorrido num período para o qual alguns dos livros da "História de Roma", de Lívio, o mais detalhado relato da história de Roma, se perderam. Ela só foi explicitamente citada num texto por Políbio, um historiador grego, que não entra muito em detalhes e a coloca apenas no contexto de outros eventos. Um texto de Apiano cita estes eventos, mas não cita a batalha explicitamente. Ela teria sido travada entre os romanos e os gauleses do norte da Itália, possivelmente os sênones, em Arrécio (moderna Arezzo). (pt)
  • Битва за Арреций произошла в 284 году до н. э. между войском римлян и войсками галльского племени сенонов. Жители Арреция призвали римлян на помощь против сенонов. В произошедшей под городом битве сеноны полностью разгромили римское войско и убили римского полководца Луция Цецилия Метелла Дентера (скорее всего, речь идёт о консуле 284 года до н. э.). Преемник Метелла, Маний Курий Дентат, отправил к галлам послов для переговоров об обмене пленными. Галлы убили послов; в ответ на это римляне снова напали на сенонов и полностью разгромили их и изгнали с занимаемой ими территории. На месте, где жили сеноны, была основана римская колония Сенигаллия (лат. Sena Gallica). Не вполне ясно, как эта битва связана хронологически со сражением с галлами-бойями при Вадимонском озере: скорее всего, разгром сенонов предшествовал битве с бойями. (ru)
dbo:causalties
  • Uncertain, 13,000 according to some doubtful claims
dbo:combatant
  • Roman Republic
  • PossiblySenoneGauls (uncertain)
dbo:commander
dbo:place
dbo:result
  • Gallic victory
dbo:strength
  • Unknown
dbo:wikiPageExternalLink
dbo:wikiPageID
  • 3153659 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageRevisionID
  • 704601179 (xsd:integer)
dbp:casualties
  • Unknown
dbp:date
  • 283 (xsd:integer)
dbp:partof
  • Roman-Gaulish Wars
dbp:wordnet_type
dct:subject
rdf:type
rdfs:comment
  • La bataille d'Arretium s'inscrit dans une succession de conflits entre Romains et tribus gauloises de Gaule transalpine et de Gaule cisalpine qui tentent de s'étendre en Italie septentrionale. La bataille prend place indirectement dans la conquête romaine de l'Étrurie. Elle oppose en 284 ou 283 av. J.-C. une armée de la République romaine à diverses tribus des Sénons. Les Romains essuient une lourde défaite durant laquelle leur général Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter est tué. Malgré ce revers, les Romains parviennent à reprendre la situation en main, repoussent les Gaulois et imposent leur suprématie sur l'Étrurie, mais cela nécessite plusieurs années de campagnes supplémentaires. (fr)
  • La battaglia di Arezzo fu combattuta nel 285 a.C. tra la Repubblica romana e i Galli. Il comandante dell'esercito romano era Lucio Cecilio Metello Denter. I Galli vinsero la battaglia, distruggendo l'esercito romano. La città venne brevemente sottoposta all'occupazione gallica prima di essere riconquistata dai romani durante la controffensiva. L'esercito romano in poche ore sconfisse duramente i Galli e li costrinse a ritirarsi nell'Italia settentrionale. (it)
  • De Slag bij Arretium werd uitgevochten in 284 v.Chr. tussen de Romeinse Republiek en de Galliërs. Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter was de bevelhebber van het Romeinse leger. De Galliërs wonnen het gevecht door de Romeinse strijdmacht te vernietigen. (nl)
  • Bitwa pod Arretium – starcie zbrojne, które miało miejsce między Rzymianami i Senonami w Etrurii w roku 284 p.n.e. lub 283 p.n.e. Według greckiego historyka Polibiusza, 10 lat po bitwie pod Sentinum Galowie oblegli Arretium. Przeciwko nim została wysłana armia rzymska pod wodzą Lucjusza Cecyliusza Metellusa Dentera. Rzymianie ponieśli klęskę, w starciu zginął Lucjusz Cecyliusz Metellus Denter wraz z większością żołnierzy. Według chrześcijańskiego historyka Pawła Orozjusza w bitwie wraz z Galami brali również udział Etruskowie, a po stronie rzymskiej miało zginąć 13 tysięcy żołnierzy, w tym dowódca i siedmiu trybunów. (pl)
  • アレティウムの戦い (おそらく紀元前283年)は、共和政ローマ時代に行われた、ローマ人とおそらくセノネス族の一部であろう北イタリアのガリア人との戦いである。 詳細な記述で知られるリウィウスの書物が完全な形で残っていれば資料に困らなかったろうが、この戦いは古代ギリシアの歴史家であるポリュビオスの記述にしか明確な言及はなく、しかも他の出来事のおまけ扱いで、アッピアノスに至っては全く言及していない。 (ja)
  • A Batalha de Arrécio, que foi provavelmente travada em 283/4 a.C., é um evento parcamente documentada na história da República Romana por ter ocorrido num período para o qual alguns dos livros da "História de Roma", de Lívio, o mais detalhado relato da história de Roma, se perderam. Ela só foi explicitamente citada num texto por Políbio, um historiador grego, que não entra muito em detalhes e a coloca apenas no contexto de outros eventos. Um texto de Apiano cita estes eventos, mas não cita a batalha explicitamente. Ela teria sido travada entre os romanos e os gauleses do norte da Itália, possivelmente os sênones, em Arrécio (moderna Arezzo). (pt)
  • The Battle of Arretium, which was probably fought in 283 BC, is a poorly documented event in the History of the Roman Republic because it occurred in a period for which some of the books of the Roman History by Livy, the most thorough ancient historian for early Rome, have been lost. The battle is only explicitly referred to in a text by Polybius, the ancient Greek historian, which does not give much detail and puts it in the context of other events. A text by Appian talks about these events, but does not make any explicit reference to the Battle of Arretium. It was fought between the Romans and Gauls of northern Italy who may have been from the Senone tribe. (en)
  • La batalla de Arretium fue un conflicto militar sucedido en c. 284 a. C. entre la República Romana y algunas tribus celtas, principalmente los senones y los boyos. Lucio Cecilio Metelo Denter era el comandante del ejército romano con el título de cónsul (de pretor urbano o de procónsul si la batalla se desarrolló a comienzos de 283 a. C.). Existe mucha confusión en cuanto al año de la batalla y el puesto militar que ocupaba el comandante romano, Cecilio. En general, hay tres versiones de la batalla, la de Polibio, la analista (Floro, Eutropio, Orosio, etc.) y la de Apiano. (es)
  • Битва за Арреций произошла в 284 году до н. э. между войском римлян и войсками галльского племени сенонов. Жители Арреция призвали римлян на помощь против сенонов. В произошедшей под городом битве сеноны полностью разгромили римское войско и убили римского полководца Луция Цецилия Метелла Дентера (скорее всего, речь идёт о консуле 284 года до н. э.). Преемник Метелла, Маний Курий Дентат, отправил к галлам послов для переговоров об обмене пленными. Галлы убили послов; в ответ на это римляне снова напали на сенонов и полностью разгромили их и изгнали с занимаемой ими территории. (ru)
rdfs:label
  • Battle of Arretium (en)
  • Batalla de Arretium (es)
  • Battaglia di Arezzo (it)
  • Bataille d'Arretium (fr)
  • Slag bij Arretium (nl)
  • アレティウムの戦い (ja)
  • Bitwa pod Arretium (pl)
  • Batalha de Arrécio (pt)
  • Битва за Арреций (ru)
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  • Battle of Arretium (en)
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