The bamboo-copter, also known as the bamboo dragonfly or Chinese top, (Chinese zhuqingting 竹蜻蜓, Japanese taketombo 竹蜻蛉) is a toy helicopter rotor that flies up when its shaft is rapidly spun. This helicopter-like top originated in Warring States period China around 400 BCE, and was the object of early experiments by George Cayley, the inventor of modern aeronautics. The Daoist scholar Ge Hong's (c. 317) book Baopuzi (抱樸子 "Master Who Embraces Simplicity") mentioned a flying vehicle in what Joseph Needham calls "truly an astonishing passage".

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  • El taketombo (en japonés 竹とんぼ), también llamado Bamboo Dragonfly (literalmente en ambos casos se traduciría al castellano por “libélula de bambú”) es un tradicional juguete japonés, apto para niños de una edad de 8 años o superior. En inglés también se lo llama bamboo-copter (es decir, "bambucóptero" o "helicóptero de bambú"). Fue originado en Reinos Combatientes (China) sobre el año 400 a.c. El modelo más común consta de una hélice a la que hay fijado un palillo de forma cilíndrica. Para hacerlo volar se hace rodar éste último por las palmas de las manos, al tiempo que éstas se frotan una a la otra. Esto hace girar la hélice a gran velocidad, lo que propulsa al aparato unos metros. (es)
  • The bamboo-copter, also known as the bamboo dragonfly or Chinese top, (Chinese zhuqingting 竹蜻蜓, Japanese taketombo 竹蜻蛉) is a toy helicopter rotor that flies up when its shaft is rapidly spun. This helicopter-like top originated in Warring States period China around 400 BCE, and was the object of early experiments by George Cayley, the inventor of modern aeronautics. In China, the earliest known flying toys consisted of feathers at the end of a stick, which was rapidly spun between the hands and released into flight. "While the Chinese top was no more than a toy, it is perhaps the first tangible device of what we may understand as a helicopter." The Daoist scholar Ge Hong's (c. 317) book Baopuzi (抱樸子 "Master Who Embraces Simplicity") mentioned a flying vehicle in what Joseph Needham calls "truly an astonishing passage". Some have made flying cars [feiche 飛車] with wood from the inner part of the jujube tree, using ox-leather (straps) fastened to returning blades so as to set the machine in motion [huan jian yi yin chiji 環劍以引其機]. Others have had the idea of making five snakes, six dragons and three oxen, to meet the "hard wind" [gangfeng 罡風] and ride on it, not stopping until they have risen to a height of forty li. That region is called [Taiqing 太清] (the purest of empty space). There the [qi] is extremely hard, so much so that it can overcome (the strength of) human beings. As the Teacher says: "The kite (bird) flies higher and higher spirally, and then only needs to stretch its two wings, beating the air no more, in order to go forward by itself. This is because it starts gliding (lit. riding) on the 'hard wind' [gangqi 罡炁]. Take dragons, for example; when they first rise they go up using the clouds as steps, and after they have attained a height of forty li then they rush forward effortlessly (lit. automatically) (gliding)." This account comes from the adepts [xianren 仙人], and is handed down to ordinary people, but they are not likely to understand it. Needham concludes that Ge Hong was describing helicopter tops because "'returning (or revolving) blades' can hardly mean anything else, especially in close association with a belt or strap"; and suggests that "snakes", "dragons", and "oxen" refer to shapes of man-lifting kites. Other scholars interpret this Baopuzi passage mythologically instead of literally, based on its context's mentioning fantastic flights through chengqiao (乘蹻 "riding on tiptoe/stilts") and xian (仙 "immortal; adept") techniques. For instance, "If you can ride the arches of your feet, you will be able to wander anywhere in the world without hindrance from mountains or rivers … Whoever takes the correct amulet and gives serious thought to the process may travel a thousand miles by concentrating his thoughts for one double hour." Compare this translation. Some build a flying vehicle from the pith of the jujube tree and have it drawn by a sword with a thong of buffalo hide at the end of its grip. Others let their thoughts dwell on the preparation of a joint rectangle from five serpents, six dragons, and three buffaloes, and mount in this for forty miles to the region known as Paradise. This Chinese helicopter toy was introduced into Europe and "made its earliest appearances in Renaissance European paintings and in the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci." The toy helicopter appears in a c. 1460 French picture of the Madonna and Child at the Musée de l'Ancien Évêché in Le Mans, and in a 16th-century stained glass panel at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. A c. 1560 picture by Pieter Breughel the Elder at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna depicts a helicopter top with three airscrews. "The helicopter top in China led to nothing but amusement and pleasure, but fourteen hundred years later it was to be one of the key elements in the birth of modern aeronautics in the West." Early Western scientists developed flying machines based upon the original Chinese model. The Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov developed a spring-driven coaxial rotor in 1743, and the French naturalist Christian de Launoy created a bow drill device with contra-rotating feather propellers. In 1792, George Cayley began experimenting with helicopter tops, which he later called "rotary wafts" or "elevating fliers". His landmark (1809) article "On Aerial Navigation" pictured and described a flying model with two propellers (constructed from corks and feathers) powered by a whalebone bow drill. "In 1835 Cayley remarked that while the original toy would rise no more than about 6 or 7.5 metres, his improved models would 'mount upward of 90 ft (27 metres) into the air'. This then was the direct ancestor of the helicopter rotor and the aircraft propeller." Discussing the history of Chinese inventiveness, Joseph Needham wrote, "Some inventions seem to have arisen merely from a whimsical curiosity, such as the 'hot air balloons' made from eggshells which did not lead to any aeronautical use or aerodynamic discoveries, or the zoetrope which did not lead onto the kinematograph, or the helicopter top which did not lead to the helicopter." (en)
  • 竹とんぼ(たけとんぼ、竹蜻蛉)とは、回転翼と翼をまわすための軸によって構成される日本と中国の伝統的な飛翔玩具である。 (ja)
  • 竹蜻蜓是一种古老的儿童玩具,由轴和桨翼组成,多以竹木制做。嚴格地說,竹蜻蜓應包括槳翼,轉軸和套在轉軸外的竹筒三個主要部份 ,光是槳翼加轉軸雖然也能玩, 但是只能當直升機玩。只有三個零件組成一體才能當自转旋翼机玩。中国晋朝葛洪所著的《抱朴子》是紀錄類似竹蜻蜓最早的動力機械《抱朴子》:「若能乘蹻者,可以周流天下,不拘山河。凡乘蹻道有三法:一曰龍蹻、二曰虎蹻、三曰鹿盧蹻。或服符精思,若欲行千里,則以一時思之。若昼夜十二时思之,则可以一日一夕行万二千里,亦不能过此,过此当更思之,如前法。或用枣心木为飞车,以牛革结环剑以引其机,或存念作五蛇六龙三牛交罡而乘之,上升四十里,名为太清。《抱朴子》一书也有这样的记述:「或用栆心木為飛車,以牛革街環劍,以引起幾。或存念作五蛇六龍三牛、交罡而乘之,上升四十里,名為太清。太清之中,其氣甚罡,能勝人也。」 (zh)
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  • 竹とんぼ(たけとんぼ、竹蜻蛉)とは、回転翼と翼をまわすための軸によって構成される日本と中国の伝統的な飛翔玩具である。 (ja)
  • 竹蜻蜓是一种古老的儿童玩具,由轴和桨翼组成,多以竹木制做。嚴格地說,竹蜻蜓應包括槳翼,轉軸和套在轉軸外的竹筒三個主要部份 ,光是槳翼加轉軸雖然也能玩, 但是只能當直升機玩。只有三個零件組成一體才能當自转旋翼机玩。中国晋朝葛洪所著的《抱朴子》是紀錄類似竹蜻蜓最早的動力機械《抱朴子》:「若能乘蹻者,可以周流天下,不拘山河。凡乘蹻道有三法:一曰龍蹻、二曰虎蹻、三曰鹿盧蹻。或服符精思,若欲行千里,則以一時思之。若昼夜十二时思之,则可以一日一夕行万二千里,亦不能过此,过此当更思之,如前法。或用枣心木为飞车,以牛革结环剑以引其机,或存念作五蛇六龙三牛交罡而乘之,上升四十里,名为太清。《抱朴子》一书也有这样的记述:「或用栆心木為飛車,以牛革街環劍,以引起幾。或存念作五蛇六龍三牛、交罡而乘之,上升四十里,名為太清。太清之中,其氣甚罡,能勝人也。」 (zh)
  • The bamboo-copter, also known as the bamboo dragonfly or Chinese top, (Chinese zhuqingting 竹蜻蜓, Japanese taketombo 竹蜻蛉) is a toy helicopter rotor that flies up when its shaft is rapidly spun. This helicopter-like top originated in Warring States period China around 400 BCE, and was the object of early experiments by George Cayley, the inventor of modern aeronautics. The Daoist scholar Ge Hong's (c. 317) book Baopuzi (抱樸子 "Master Who Embraces Simplicity") mentioned a flying vehicle in what Joseph Needham calls "truly an astonishing passage". (en)
  • El taketombo (en japonés 竹とんぼ), también llamado Bamboo Dragonfly (literalmente en ambos casos se traduciría al castellano por “libélula de bambú”) es un tradicional juguete japonés, apto para niños de una edad de 8 años o superior. En inglés también se lo llama bamboo-copter (es decir, "bambucóptero" o "helicóptero de bambú"). Fue originado en Reinos Combatientes (China) sobre el año 400 a.c. (es)
rdfs:label
  • Bamboo-copter (en)
  • Taketombo (es)
  • 竹とんぼ (ja)
  • 竹蜻蜓 (zh)
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