Archibald Cox, Jr. (May 17, 1912 – May 29, 2004) was an American lawyer, legal scholar and professor, whose career alternated between academia and government. As a faculty member at the Harvard Law School, he became one of the early experts in federal labor law. In 1948 he published the first case book on labor law for use in law schools, a book that was periodically updated and supplemented until 2011. A prolific writer, he publishing dozens of articles on developments in labor relations. Even while teaching full-time, he became a noted labor arbitrator and wage stabilizer, in the latter role facing off against the United Mine Workers in an industrial dispute that touched on national security issues during the Korean War.

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dbo:abstract
  • Archibald Cox, Jr. (May 17, 1912 – May 29, 2004) was an American lawyer, legal scholar and professor, whose career alternated between academia and government. As a faculty member at the Harvard Law School, he became one of the early experts in federal labor law. In 1948 he published the first case book on labor law for use in law schools, a book that was periodically updated and supplemented until 2011. A prolific writer, he publishing dozens of articles on developments in labor relations. Even while teaching full-time, he became a noted labor arbitrator and wage stabilizer, in the latter role facing off against the United Mine Workers in an industrial dispute that touched on national security issues during the Korean War. He became Senator John F. Kennedy's labor advisor in connection with the senator's single major legislative project, a bill that would become the Landrum–Griffin amendments, and as a result of that role became head of Kennedy's presidential campaign's brain trust, recruiting intellectuals and coordinating policy research and speech-writing for the campaign. In 1961 President Kennedy appointed him Solicitor General, an office he held for four and a half years during which time he briefed and argued some of the most consequential decisions of the Warren Court. On return to Harvard he expanded on his experience in government to write on and teach constitutional law. He headed a blue ribbon commission that investigated the student strikes that closed down Columbia University in Spring 1968, then became Harvard's point man dealing with student disorders at Harvard for the next three years. Cox became internationally famous when under mounting pressure and charges of corruption against persons closely associated with Richard Nixon, Attorney General nominee Elliot Richardson was forced to appoint him (on account of his reputation for integrity and his independence from the President) as Special Prosecutor to oversee the federal criminal investigation into the Watergate burglary and other related crimes, corrupt activities and wrongdoings that became popularly known as the Watergate scandal. His investigation led him directly to the President himself, and he had a dramatic confrontation with Nixon when he subpoenaed the tapes the President had secretly recorded of his Oval Office conversations. When Cox refused a direct order to seek no further tapes or Presidential materials, Nixon fired him in an incident that became known as the Saturday Night Massacre. Cox's calm, reasonable and impeccably dignified explanations of his positions earned him overwhelming support among the professional bar and a great deal of popularity among the country at large. His firing produced a public relations disaster for Nixon and set in motion impeachment proceedings. In the end, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously against the President and in favor of the position taken by Cox in an opinion written by Nixon appointee Chief Justice Warren Burger. Rather than face impeachment and trial with the tapes as evidence, Richard Nixon became the only United States President to resign. Cox returned to teaching, lecturing and writing for the rest of his life, giving his opinions on the role of the court in the development of the law and the role of the lawyer in society. He was appointed to head several public-service, watchdog and good-government organizations, including serving for 12 years as head of Common Cause. In addition he argued two important Supreme Court cases, winning both: one concerning the constitutionality of federal campaign finance restrictions and the other the first case testing affirmative action. The New York Times summarized his career in a 1992 opinion: "Mr. Cox devoted his considerable prestige, energy, and legal skills to advancing the cause of higher government ethics. With public trust in government at a dangerously low ebb, Mr. Cox's message is more powerful than ever." (en)
  • Archibald Cox Jr. (* 12. Mai 1912 in Plainfield, New Jersey; † 29. Mai 2004 in Brooksville, Maine) war ein US-amerikanischer Professor für Verfassungsrecht und staatlicher Sonderermittler in der Watergate-Affäre. Cox war Mitglied der Demokratischen Partei. 1960 war Cox Mitglied des Wahlkampfteams von John F. Kennedy. 1961 wurde er Rechtsberater des Präsidenten und als United States Solicitor General dritter Mann im Justizministerium der Vereinigten Staaten. Dies blieb er auch noch eine Weile unter dessen Nachfolger Lyndon B. Johnson, bevor er 1965 als Professor für Verfassungsrecht zur juristischen Fakultät der Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts wechselte. Er beriet das Parlament von Massachusetts bei Unregelmäßigkeiten von Beamten. Am 18. Mai 1973 wurde er vom Justizminister zum Sonderermittler in der Watergate-Affäre ernannt. Er sollte aufklären, ob die Regierung Präsident Richard Nixons in den Einbruch in die Wahlkampfzentrale der Demokratischen Partei im Watergate-Hotel in Washington, D.C. verwickelt war. Als ein Zeuge gegenüber Cox erklärte, dass Nixon jahrelang alle Gespräche mit Mitarbeitern auf Tonband aufzeichnen ließ, forderte er sämtliche Aufzeichnungen aus dem Büro des Präsidenten an, die Watergate zum Inhalt hatten. Der Präsident lehnte das ab und versuchte, Cox zu überzeugen, auf die Beschlagnahme zu verzichten. Als Cox sich weigerte, wurde er am 20. Oktober 1973 auf Anweisung des Präsidenten entlassen (Saturday Night Massacre). Die Entlassung von Cox rief den amerikanischen Kongress auf den Plan, was schließlich zum Rücktritt Nixons führte. Im Jahr 2001 wurde Cox von Bill Clinton die Bürgermedaille des US-Präsidenten verliehen. Bereits 1955 war er in die American Academy of Arts and Sciences gewählt worden. Siegel des Justizministeriums der Vereinigten StaatenUnited States Solicitors General Normdaten (Person): GND: 120273853 | LCCN: n79111486 | VIAF: 14832491 | (de)
  • أرشيبالد كوكس (بالإنجليزية: Archibald Cox) (و. 1912 – 2004 م) هو محاماة، ومحام من الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية .وهو عضو في الحزب الديمقراطي الأمريكي . (ar)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr (17 mai 1912-29 mai 2004) est un juriste américain qui s'est rendu célèbre comme procureur indépendant dans l'affaire du Watergate. (fr)
  • アーチボルド・コックス・ジュニア(Archibald Cox, Jr., 1912年5月12日 - 2004年5月29日)は、ジョン・F・ケネディ大統領の下の訟務長官を務めて、ウォーターゲート事件の特別検察官だった、アメリカ合衆国の法律家。 ハーバード大学、ハーバード・ロースクールを卒業後、連邦控訴裁判所のハンド裁判官の調査官を務めた。その後ハーバード大学法学部教授となり、憲法、労働法などを教授した(スコット・トゥローの処女作「ハーバード・ロー・スクール」に登場する)。 「土曜日の夜の虐殺」と名付けられた1973年10月20日に、リチャード・ニクソン大統領は、ウォーターゲート事件特別検察官のコックスを解任するように命じた。司法長官エリオット・リチャードソンおよび司法副長官ウィリアム・D・ラッケルズハウスの両人はこの命令を拒否して辞職した。命令は後任の訟務長官ロバート・ボークによって行なわれた。 (ja)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr. (Plainfield (New Jersey), 17 mei 1912 - Brooksville (Maine), 29 mei 2004) was een Amerikaans advocaat en hoogleraar in de rechten die als speciaal aanklager diende onder president John F. Kennedy. Hij werd bekend als de eerste speciaal aanklager voor het Watergateschandaal. Archibald Cox was de aanklager die president Nixon wilde dwingen de geluidsbanden af te staan waarop belastende informatie over Watergate stond. Nixon weigerde dit. Omdat Cox voet bij stuk hield besloot Nixon dat hij moest worden ontslagen. Nixon eiste van minister van Justitie, Elliot Richardson, dat hij Cox de laan uit zou sturen. Maar Richardson weigerde. Hierop besloot Cox een persconferentie te geven waarop hij zijn standpunt toelichtte. Cox slaagde er tijdens deze persconferentie in, het cynische perscorps van Washington te overtuigen. Omdat de persconferentie live werd uitgezonden, werd Cox op slag een beroemdheid. Daarmee was voor Nixon de maat vol. Toen Richardson opnieuw weigerde Cox te ontslaan, ontsloeg Nixon achtereenvolgens Richardson en zijn plaatsvervanger, William Ruckelshaus. Pas toen diens plaatsvervanger, Robert Bork bereid was Cox te ontslaan, moest deze het veld ruimen. Na zijn ontslag keerde Cox terug naar de Universiteit. In zijn wetenschappelijke carrière op Harvard was hij een baanbrekende deskundige van het arbeidsrecht en ook een autoriteit in staatsrecht. (nl)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr (ur. 17 maja 1912 w Plainfield, zm. 29 maja 2004 w Brooksville w stanie Maine) – amerykański prawnik, który pracował jako państwowy radca prawny USA za kadencji Johna F. Kennedy’ego, a później zyskał rozgłos jako główny prokurator podczas procesu związanego z aferą Watergate. (pl)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr. (Plainsfield, 17 de maio de 1912 –Brooksville, 29 de maio de 2004) foi um advogado e professor de direito dos Estados Unidos que serviu como Advogado-geral durante a administração do Presidente John F. Kennedy e mais tarde como Procurador especial durante o escândalo de Watergate. Durante a sua carreira, ele foi um pioneiro em leis trabalhistas e uma autoridade em leis constitucionais. O The Journal of Legal Studies identificou Cox como um dos estudiosos legais mais citados do século XX. Ele também se tornou um notável mediador trabalhista enquanto continuou a ensinar. Ele se tornou um apoiador, conselheiro e escritor de discursos do senador John F. Kennedy e apoiou a sua candidatura a presidência. Ele foi recompensado através de sua indicação a advogado-geral em 1961, um cargo que manteve por quatro anos e meio. Em retribuição a Harvard, ele usou sua experiência no governo para escrever e ensinar sobre as leis constitucionais. Cox se tornou mundialmente famoso quando estava investigando crimes de corrupção, o presidente Richard Nixon foi forçado a nomeá-lo (devido a sua reputação e independência do presidente) como procurador especial para comandar a investigação do roubo de Watergate e outros crimes relacionados, envolvendo atividades de corrupção que se tornariam popularmente conhecidas como o Escândalo do Watergate. Suas investigações levaram ele diretamente ao próprio presidente, e ele teve um confronto dramático com Nixon quando quando acessou as fitas que Presidente tinha gravado secretamente em suas conversas no Salão Oval. Quando Cox recusou uma ordem direta para que ele parasse as investigações, Nixon o demitiu em um incidente que se tornou conhecido como Massacre do Sábado a Noite. A calma racionalidade e impecabilidade de Cox fizeram com que ele ganhasse alto apoio dos advogados profissionais e grande popularidade entre os cidadãos do país. No final, a Suprema Corte votou por unanimidade contra o presidente e a favor da posição de Cox em uma opinião escrita pelo chefe de justiça indicado por Nixon, Warren E. Burger. O conteúdo das fitas foram decisivos no processo de impeachment na câmara dos deputados. Além de enfrentar essa ação penal, Richard Nixon se tornou o primeiro presidente dos Estados Unidos a renunciar. Cox retornou a ensinar e escrever pelo resto da sua vida. O The New York Times resumiu a sua carreira a uma mensagem de opinião de 1992: "O senhor Cox devotou o seu considerável prestigio, energia e habilidades jurídicas para avançar na ética do governo. Com a confiança da população no governo perigosamente baixa public, a mensagem do senhor Cox está mais poderosa do que nunca." (pt)
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  • Phyllis Ames Cox .
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  • أرشيبالد كوكس (بالإنجليزية: Archibald Cox) (و. 1912 – 2004 م) هو محاماة، ومحام من الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية .وهو عضو في الحزب الديمقراطي الأمريكي . (ar)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr (17 mai 1912-29 mai 2004) est un juriste américain qui s'est rendu célèbre comme procureur indépendant dans l'affaire du Watergate. (fr)
  • アーチボルド・コックス・ジュニア(Archibald Cox, Jr., 1912年5月12日 - 2004年5月29日)は、ジョン・F・ケネディ大統領の下の訟務長官を務めて、ウォーターゲート事件の特別検察官だった、アメリカ合衆国の法律家。 ハーバード大学、ハーバード・ロースクールを卒業後、連邦控訴裁判所のハンド裁判官の調査官を務めた。その後ハーバード大学法学部教授となり、憲法、労働法などを教授した(スコット・トゥローの処女作「ハーバード・ロー・スクール」に登場する)。 「土曜日の夜の虐殺」と名付けられた1973年10月20日に、リチャード・ニクソン大統領は、ウォーターゲート事件特別検察官のコックスを解任するように命じた。司法長官エリオット・リチャードソンおよび司法副長官ウィリアム・D・ラッケルズハウスの両人はこの命令を拒否して辞職した。命令は後任の訟務長官ロバート・ボークによって行なわれた。 (ja)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr (ur. 17 maja 1912 w Plainfield, zm. 29 maja 2004 w Brooksville w stanie Maine) – amerykański prawnik, który pracował jako państwowy radca prawny USA za kadencji Johna F. Kennedy’ego, a później zyskał rozgłos jako główny prokurator podczas procesu związanego z aferą Watergate. (pl)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr. (May 17, 1912 – May 29, 2004) was an American lawyer, legal scholar and professor, whose career alternated between academia and government. As a faculty member at the Harvard Law School, he became one of the early experts in federal labor law. In 1948 he published the first case book on labor law for use in law schools, a book that was periodically updated and supplemented until 2011. A prolific writer, he publishing dozens of articles on developments in labor relations. Even while teaching full-time, he became a noted labor arbitrator and wage stabilizer, in the latter role facing off against the United Mine Workers in an industrial dispute that touched on national security issues during the Korean War. (en)
  • Archibald Cox Jr. (* 12. Mai 1912 in Plainfield, New Jersey; † 29. Mai 2004 in Brooksville, Maine) war ein US-amerikanischer Professor für Verfassungsrecht und staatlicher Sonderermittler in der Watergate-Affäre. Am 18. Mai 1973 wurde er vom Justizminister zum Sonderermittler in der Watergate-Affäre ernannt. Er sollte aufklären, ob die Regierung Präsident Richard Nixons in den Einbruch in die Wahlkampfzentrale der Demokratischen Partei im Watergate-Hotel in Washington, D.C. verwickelt war. Siegel des Justizministeriums der Vereinigten StaatenUnited States Solicitors General (de)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr. (Plainfield (New Jersey), 17 mei 1912 - Brooksville (Maine), 29 mei 2004) was een Amerikaans advocaat en hoogleraar in de rechten die als speciaal aanklager diende onder president John F. Kennedy. Hij werd bekend als de eerste speciaal aanklager voor het Watergateschandaal. Archibald Cox was de aanklager die president Nixon wilde dwingen de geluidsbanden af te staan waarop belastende informatie over Watergate stond. Nixon weigerde dit. Omdat Cox voet bij stuk hield besloot Nixon dat hij moest worden ontslagen. Nixon eiste van minister van Justitie, Elliot Richardson, dat hij Cox de laan uit zou sturen. Maar Richardson weigerde. Hierop besloot Cox een persconferentie te geven waarop hij zijn standpunt toelichtte. Cox slaagde er tijdens deze persconferentie in, het cynisch (nl)
  • Archibald Cox, Jr. (Plainsfield, 17 de maio de 1912 –Brooksville, 29 de maio de 2004) foi um advogado e professor de direito dos Estados Unidos que serviu como Advogado-geral durante a administração do Presidente John F. Kennedy e mais tarde como Procurador especial durante o escândalo de Watergate. Durante a sua carreira, ele foi um pioneiro em leis trabalhistas e uma autoridade em leis constitucionais. O The Journal of Legal Studies identificou Cox como um dos estudiosos legais mais citados do século XX. Ele também se tornou um notável mediador trabalhista enquanto continuou a ensinar. (pt)
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  • أرشيبالد كوكس (ar)
  • Archibald Cox (de)
  • Archibald Cox (fr)
  • アーチボルド・コックス (ja)
  • Archibald Cox (nl)
  • Archibald Cox (pl)
  • Archibald Cox (pt)
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