During the 20th century there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Prior to the invention of mass market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done ca. 1919–20), people mainly listened to music at live Classical music concerts or musical theatre shows, which were too expensive for many lower-income people; on early phonograph players (a technology invented in 1877 which was not mass-marketed until the mid-1890s); or by individuals performing music or singing songs on an amateur basis at home, using sheet music, which required the ability to sing, play, and read music, which were skills that tended to be limited to middle-class and upper-class individuals. With the mass-market availability of gramophone records an

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dbo:abstract
  • Die Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts wird in der europäischen Kunstmusik in die folgenden Stilrichtungen unterteilt: * Spätromantik, etwa 1870–1920/'40 * Nach- und Neoromantik * Übergangsstile, z. B.: * Impressionismus, etwa 1880–1910 * Stilvielfalt der Neuen Musik (häufig im engeren Sinne mit „Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts“ gemeint), z. B.: * Atonale Musik ab den 1910er Jahren * Zwölftonmusik ab etwa 1920 * Mikrotonale Musik ab den 1920er Jahren * Serielle Musik ab den 1940er Jahren * Konkrete Musik ab den 1940er Jahren * Elektronische Musik ab den 1950er Jahren * Aleatorik ab den 1950er Jahren * Computermusik ab den 1950er Jahren * Postserielle Musik ab den 1960er Jahren * Minimal Music ab den 1960er Jahren * Neue Einfachheit als vage Sammelbezeichnung ab den 1970er Jahren * Spektralmusik ab den 1970er Jahren * Algorithmische Komposition ab den 1990er Jahren In der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus wurden in Deutschland etliche Komponisten ihrer Wirkungsmöglichkeiten beraubt – entweder weil sie jüdischer Herkunft waren oder weil ihre Tonsprache nicht den ästhetischen Dogmen der Reichsmusikkammer entsprach. (Siehe auch die Artikel Musik im Nationalsozialismus, Entartete Musik und Liste der vom NS-Regime verfolgten Komponisten). Die populäre Musik entwickelte sich im 20. Jahrhundert weiter und wurde durch die neuen technischen Möglichkeiten zur Musikproduktion Teil der kommerzialisierten Massenkultur. Jazz und Rockmusik erlangten weltweite Popularität. (Siehe auch die Artikel Musikindustrie und Digitalisierung). Auch die Musikkulturen Afrikas, Asiens, Lateinamerikas und anderer Kulturkreise wurden im Westen verstärkt rezipiert. (de)
  • During the 20th century there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Prior to the invention of mass market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done ca. 1919–20), people mainly listened to music at live Classical music concerts or musical theatre shows, which were too expensive for many lower-income people; on early phonograph players (a technology invented in 1877 which was not mass-marketed until the mid-1890s); or by individuals performing music or singing songs on an amateur basis at home, using sheet music, which required the ability to sing, play, and read music, which were skills that tended to be limited to middle-class and upper-class individuals. With the mass-market availability of gramophone records and radio broadcasts, listeners could purchase recordings of, or listen on radio to recordings or live broadcasts of a huge variety of songs and musical pieces. This enabled a much wider range of the population to listen to performances of Classical music symphonies and operas that they would not be able to hear live, either due to not being able to afford live-concert tickets or because such music was not performed in their region. Sound recording was also a major influence on the development of popular music genres, because it enabled recordings of songs and bands to be inexpensively and widely distributed nationwide or even, for some artists, worldwide. The development of relatively inexpensive reproduction of music via a succession of formats including vinyl records, compact cassettes, compact discs (introduced in 1983) and, by the mid-1990s, digital audio recordings, and the transmission or broadcast of audio recordings of music performances on radio, of video recordings or live performances on television, and by the 1990s, of audio and video recordings via the Internet, using file sharing of digital audio recordings, gave individuals from a wide range of socioeconomic classes access to a diverse selection of high-quality music performances by artists from around the world. The introduction of multitrack recording in 1955 and the use of mixing had a major influence on pop and rock music, because it enabled record producers to mix and overdub many layers of instrument tracks and vocals, creating new sounds that would not be possible in a live performance. The development of sound recording and audio engineering technologies and the ability to edit these recordings gave rise to new subgenres of classical music, including the Musique concrète (1949) and acousmatic(1955) schools of electronic composition. In the 1970s, African-American hip hop musicians began to use the record turntable as a musical instrument, creating rhythmic and percussive "scratching" effects by manipulating a vinyl record on the turntable. The 20th-century orchestra was far more flexible than its predecessors and used a much wider variety of instruments. In Beethoven's and Felix Mendelssohn's time in the 19th century, the orchestra was composed of a fairly standard core of instruments which was very rarely modified. As time progressed, and as the Romantic period saw changes in accepted modification with composers such as Berlioz and Mahler, the 20th century saw that instrumentation could practically be hand-picked by the composer. Saxophones were used in some 20th-century orchestra scores such as Vaughan Williams' Symphonies No.6 and 9 and William Walton's Belshazzar's Feast, and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble. Twentieth-century orchestras generally include a string section, woodwinds, brass instruments, percussion, piano, celeste, harp(s), with other instruments called for occasionally, such as electric guitar and electric bass. The 20th century saw dramatic innovations in musical forms and styles. Composers and songwriters explored new forms and sounds that challenged the previously accepted rules of music of earlier periods, such as the use of altered chords and extended chords in 1940s-era Bebop jazz. The development of powerful, loud guitar amplifiers and sound reinforcement systems in the 1960s and 1970s permitted bands to hold large concerts where even those with the least expensive tickets could hear the show. Composers and songwriters experimented with new musical styles, such as genre fusions (e.g., the late 1960s fusion of jazz and rock music to create jazz fusion). As well, composers and musicians used new electric, electronic, and digital instruments and musical devices. In the 1980s, some styles of music, such as electronic dance music genres such as house music were created largely with synthesizers and drum machines. Faster modes of transportation such as jet flight allowed musicians and fans to travel more widely to perform or hear shows, which increased the spread of musical styles. (en)
  • Uma revolução ocorreu na música do século XX cno ganho de popularidade do rádio pelo mundo, e novas medias e tecnologias foram desenvolvidas para gravar, capturar, reproduzir e distribuir música. Como ela já não era mais limitada a concertos e clubes, tornou-se possível aos artistas da música ganhar rapidamente fama nacional e até internacional. Da mesma forma, o público poderia agora estar exposto a um leque maior de opções que anteriormente, resultando no fenômeno da world music. As apresentações tornaram-se cada vez mais visuais com a transmissão e gravação de vídeos musicais e concertos. Música de todo gênero tornou-se cada vez mais portátil. Os fones de ouvido permitiram às pessoas a sentarem-se próximas das outras e ouvirem composições completamente diferentes ou compartilhar a mesma composição. As leis de direitos autorais foram desenvolvidas, mas novas tecnologias tornaram mais fácil a gravação, o compartilhante e a reprodução ilegal de música. A música do século XX trouxe nova ampliada-de e maior experimentação com novos gêneros musicais e formas que desafiaram os dogmas de períodos anteriores. A invenção e disseminação dos instrumentos musicais eletrônicos e do sintetizador em meados do século revolucionaram a música popular e aceleraram o desenvolvimento de novas formas de música. Os sons de diferentes continentes começaram a se fundir de alguma forma. Modos mais rápidos de transporte permitiram aos músicos e fãs a viajar mais longe para apresentar ou ouvir. (pt)
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  • During the 20th century there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Prior to the invention of mass market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done ca. 1919–20), people mainly listened to music at live Classical music concerts or musical theatre shows, which were too expensive for many lower-income people; on early phonograph players (a technology invented in 1877 which was not mass-marketed until the mid-1890s); or by individuals performing music or singing songs on an amateur basis at home, using sheet music, which required the ability to sing, play, and read music, which were skills that tended to be limited to middle-class and upper-class individuals. With the mass-market availability of gramophone records an (en)
  • Die Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts wird in der europäischen Kunstmusik in die folgenden Stilrichtungen unterteilt: * Spätromantik, etwa 1870–1920/'40 * Nach- und Neoromantik * Übergangsstile, z. B.: * Impressionismus, etwa 1880–1910 * Stilvielfalt der Neuen Musik (häufig im engeren Sinne mit „Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts“ gemeint), z. B.: * Atonale Musik ab den 1910er Jahren * Zwölftonmusik ab etwa 1920 * Mikrotonale Musik ab den 1920er Jahren * Serielle Musik ab den 1940er Jahren * Konkrete Musik ab den 1940er Jahren * Elektronische Musik ab den 1950er Jahren * Aleatorik ab den 1950er Jahren * Computermusik ab den 1950er Jahren * Postserielle Musik ab den 1960er Jahren * Minimal Music ab den 1960er Jahren * Neue Einfachheit als vage Sammelbezeichnung ab den 1970e (de)
  • Uma revolução ocorreu na música do século XX cno ganho de popularidade do rádio pelo mundo, e novas medias e tecnologias foram desenvolvidas para gravar, capturar, reproduzir e distribuir música. Como ela já não era mais limitada a concertos e clubes, tornou-se possível aos artistas da música ganhar rapidamente fama nacional e até internacional. Da mesma forma, o público poderia agora estar exposto a um leque maior de opções que anteriormente, resultando no fenômeno da world music. As apresentações tornaram-se cada vez mais visuais com a transmissão e gravação de vídeos musicais e concertos. Música de todo gênero tornou-se cada vez mais portátil. Os fones de ouvido permitiram às pessoas a sentarem-se próximas das outras e ouvirem composições completamente diferentes ou compartilhar a mesma (pt)
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  • 20th-century music (en)
  • Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts (de)
  • Música do século XX (pt)
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