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Synthesis of morphine-like alkaloids in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the natural morphinan class of alkaloids that includes codeine, morphine, oripavine, and thebaine and the closely related semisynthetic analogs buprenorphine, hydrocodone, isocodeine, naltrexone, naloxone, nalbuphine, and oxycodone. Several other syntheses were reported, notably by the research groups of Evans, Fuchs, Parker, Overman, Mulzer-Trauner, White, Taber, Trost, Fukuyama, Guillou, Stork, and Magnus.

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  • 吗啡全合成
  • Total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids
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  • 吗啡全合成在化学中是指对生物碱吗啡的全合成。首次全合成由马歇尔·D·盖茨于1952年完成,并被视为这个领域中的经典之作。 此后,许多化学家提出了新的合成路线,其中值得注意的有以下研究者率领的团队所提出的路线:赖斯、埃文斯、富克斯、帕克、奥尔曼、木泽尔·特劳纳、怀特、泰伯、特罗斯特、福山、吉尤和斯托克。
  • Synthesis of morphine-like alkaloids in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the natural morphinan class of alkaloids that includes codeine, morphine, oripavine, and thebaine and the closely related semisynthetic analogs buprenorphine, hydrocodone, isocodeine, naltrexone, naloxone, nalbuphine, and oxycodone. Several other syntheses were reported, notably by the research groups of Evans, Fuchs, Parker, Overman, Mulzer-Trauner, White, Taber, Trost, Fukuyama, Guillou, Stork, and Magnus.
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  • 吗啡全合成在化学中是指对生物碱吗啡的全合成。首次全合成由马歇尔·D·盖茨于1952年完成,并被视为这个领域中的经典之作。 此后,许多化学家提出了新的合成路线,其中值得注意的有以下研究者率领的团队所提出的路线:赖斯、埃文斯、富克斯、帕克、奥尔曼、木泽尔·特劳纳、怀特、泰伯、特罗斯特、福山、吉尤和斯托克。
  • Synthesis of morphine-like alkaloids in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the natural morphinan class of alkaloids that includes codeine, morphine, oripavine, and thebaine and the closely related semisynthetic analogs buprenorphine, hydrocodone, isocodeine, naltrexone, naloxone, nalbuphine, and oxycodone. The structure of morphine is not particularly complex, however the electrostatic polarization of adjacent bonded atoms does not alternate uniformly throughout the structure. This "dissonant connectivity" makes bond formation more difficult and therefore significantly complicates any synthetic strategy that is applied to this family of molecules. The first morphine total synthesis, devised by Marshall D. Gates, Jr. in 1952 remains a widely used example of total synthesis. This synthesis took a total of 31 steps and proceeded in 0.06% over all yield. The dihydrocodeinone synthesis of Kenner C. Rice is one of the most efficient and proceeds in 30% overall yield in 14 steps. Several other syntheses were reported, notably by the research groups of Evans, Fuchs, Parker, Overman, Mulzer-Trauner, White, Taber, Trost, Fukuyama, Guillou, Stork, and Magnus.
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