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Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher. Particularly in childhood, a model is someone of authority or higher status. In animals, observational learning is often based on classical conditioning, in which an instinctive behavior is elicited by observing the behavior of another (e.g. mobbing in birds), but other processes may be involved as well.

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  • Observational learning
  • Lernen am Modell
  • Cognitivismo social
  • Имитационное научение
  • 观察学习
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  • Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher. Particularly in childhood, a model is someone of authority or higher status. In animals, observational learning is often based on classical conditioning, in which an instinctive behavior is elicited by observing the behavior of another (e.g. mobbing in birds), but other processes may be involved as well.
  • Cognitivismo social é o estudo do ser humano no seu pensamento e ação social. en:Social cognitivism zh:社会学习论
  • Lernen am Modell (oder auch Modell-Lernen oder Modelllernen) bezeichnet eine kognitivistische Lerntheorie. Es werden darunter Lernvorgänge verstanden, die auf der Beobachtung des Verhaltens von menschlichen Vorbildern beruhen. Die persönliche Anwesenheit dieser Vorbilder (Modelle) ist dabei von untergeordneter Bedeutung. Es gibt mehrere Lerntheorien des „Lernens am Modell“. Im deutschsprachigen Raum am weitesten verbreitet ist die Sozialkognitive Lerntheorie von Albert Bandura (1963).
  • 观察学习(Observational learning),又称为“替代学习”(vicarious learning),是指由于观察他人行为,而发生的行为或态度学习。对观察学习的研究主要归功于美国心理学家阿尔波特·班杜拉。进一步的研究已经开始,显示观察学习与经典条件反射和操作条件反射之间的关系。 许多人把观察学习误认为是模仿。这2个术语的不同之处在于,观察学习是由于观察榜样而引起的行为改变。这并不意味复制榜样的行为。它也意味着观察者由于了解了某种行为的后果,可能做出榜样的反面行为。这种学习不要做什么的情况,是没有模仿的观察学习。 尽管观察学习可能发生在人生的任何阶段,但是通常认为主要发生在重要的童年时期,特别是权威的影响非常重要。对于观察学习,最佳的行为榜样是比观察者年长一到两岁者。因此,社会学习理论已经影响了关于电视暴力和父母亲行为榜样影响的争论。班杜拉的“波波玩偶实验”在心理学中作为观察学习的实证被广泛引证,证明儿童在观察成人玩与实物同样大小的回弹玩偶之后,自己再去玩这些玩偶时,出现暴力行为的几率增加。不过,有可能只有得到强化,儿童才复制榜样的行为。但是奥托·劳森在1968年发现,只有56%的儿童由于电视的影响,通过暴力行为来达到目的。
  • Имитационное научение («обсервационное научение», «научение через наблюдение», «викарное научение» или «научение по образцу») — психотерапевтический метод, основнаный на теории социального научения Альберта Бандуры. Этот метод используется в когнитивно-поведенческой психотерапии; он в заключается в том, что клиенту предлагается наблюдать и имитировать желательные паттерны (модели) поведения (например, поведение терапевта или ассистента терапевта). Для подкрепления желательных типов поведения используется «жетонная система вознаграждений» (англ. token economy) и прием, называемый термином «промптинг» (англ. prompting), то есть поддержка и поощрение со стороны терапевта, который подает пример. По мере закрепления желательных форм поведения подкрепление со стороны терапевта постепенно уменьша
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