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The Mongol Empire conquered the Qara Khitai in the years 1216–1218 AD. Prior to the invasion, war with the Khwarazmian dynasty and the usurpation of power by the Naiman prince Kuchlug had weakened the Qara Khitai. When Kuchlug besieged Almaliq, a city belonging to the Karluks, vassals of the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan dispatched a force under command of Jebe to pursue Kuchlug. After his force of 30,000 was defeated by Jebe at the Khitan capital Balasagun, Kuchlug faced rebellions over his unpopular rule, forcing him to flee to modern Afghanistan, where he was captured by hunters in 1218. The hunters turned Kuchlug over to the Mongols, who beheaded him. Upon defeating the Qara Khitai, the Mongols now had a direct border with the Khwarazmian Empire, which they would soon invade in 1219.

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  • モンゴルの西遼征服
  • 蒙古攻西辽之战
  • Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai
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  • この項目では、1218年に行われたモンゴル帝国による西遼(カラ・キタイ)の征服について記述する。 モンゴルの征服が始まる前、西遼は隣国ホラズム・シャー朝との抗争とナイマン部族の王子クチュルクの簒奪によって衰退していた。クチュルクがモンゴル帝国に従属を誓っていたカルルクの都市アルマリクを攻撃した後、西遼はモンゴルの攻撃の目標にされる。1218年にチンギス・カンは将軍ジェベにクチュルクの追討を命じ、ジェベは西遼の首都ベラサグンで30,000の西遼軍を撃破する。ベラサグンでの戦闘の後、クチュルクの統治に不満を抱く人間が反乱を起こし、1218年にクチュルクは逃亡先のアフガニスタンで猟師に殺害された。西遼の征服を達成してまもなく、1219年にモンゴル帝国は国境を接するホラズム・シャー朝への攻撃を開始する。
  • 蒙古攻西辽之战,1218年起,成吉思汗為控制通往中亞及西亚商貿路線:絲路,在擊敗西夏、征服回鹘部後掌握絲路東段,繼而攻擊曾經護衛回鹘的西遼國,掌握絲路中段貿易財富;此戰由大將哲別僅領蒙軍鐵騎兩萬多即達成戰勝任務;亦可視作蒙古第一次西征前哨戰之序幕。
  • The Mongol Empire conquered the Qara Khitai in the years 1216–1218 AD. Prior to the invasion, war with the Khwarazmian dynasty and the usurpation of power by the Naiman prince Kuchlug had weakened the Qara Khitai. When Kuchlug besieged Almaliq, a city belonging to the Karluks, vassals of the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan dispatched a force under command of Jebe to pursue Kuchlug. After his force of 30,000 was defeated by Jebe at the Khitan capital Balasagun, Kuchlug faced rebellions over his unpopular rule, forcing him to flee to modern Afghanistan, where he was captured by hunters in 1218. The hunters turned Kuchlug over to the Mongols, who beheaded him. Upon defeating the Qara Khitai, the Mongols now had a direct border with the Khwarazmian Empire, which they would soon invade in 1219.
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