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Intrusive rock forms within Earth's crust from the crystallization of magma. Magma slowly pushes up from deep within the earth into any cracks or spaces it can find, sometimes pushing existing country rock out of the way, a process that can take millions of years. As the rock slowly cools into a solid, the different parts of the magma crystallize into minerals. Many mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada in California, are formed mostly from large granite (or related rock) intrusions. A well-known example of an intrusion is Devils Tower.

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  • Plutonit
  • Intrusive rock
  • Roche plutonique
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  • Plutonite, auch Intrusiva, Intrusivgesteine oder Tiefengesteine, sind magmatische Gesteine, die in großer Tiefe durch extrem langsame Abkühlung von Magmen entstehen. Die resultierenden Gesteinskörper, die durch Hebungsprozesse und Erosion an die Erdoberfläche gelangen können, werden Plutone oder, wenn sie sehr große Abmessungen erreichen, Batholithe genannt. Da in den für Plutonite typischen Bildungstiefen von mehreren Kilometern relativ hohe Temperaturen herrschen, läuft die Kristallisation langsamer ab als bei Magma, das bis an die Erdoberfläche aufgedrungen ist (Lava), und aus dem die Vulkanite hervorgehen. Deshalb weisen Plutonite eine typisch großkörnige Textur auf.
  • Intrusive rock forms within Earth's crust from the crystallization of magma. Magma slowly pushes up from deep within the earth into any cracks or spaces it can find, sometimes pushing existing country rock out of the way, a process that can take millions of years. As the rock slowly cools into a solid, the different parts of the magma crystallize into minerals. Many mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada in California, are formed mostly from large granite (or related rock) intrusions. A well-known example of an intrusion is Devils Tower.
  • Les roches plutoniques sont des roches magmatiques grenues, en général de grande extension géographique (formant un pluton). On les rencontre dans les massifs montagneux, jeunes (Alpes, Himalaya, Andes) ou vieux (Massif armoricain, Massif central). Les roches filoniennes (aplites, pegmatites), formées en périphérie des plutons, sont parfois classées parmi les roches plutoniques. Mais elles sont plutôt considérées comme un groupe intermédiaire entre les roches plutoniques et les roches volcaniques.
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  • Plutonite, auch Intrusiva, Intrusivgesteine oder Tiefengesteine, sind magmatische Gesteine, die in großer Tiefe durch extrem langsame Abkühlung von Magmen entstehen. Die resultierenden Gesteinskörper, die durch Hebungsprozesse und Erosion an die Erdoberfläche gelangen können, werden Plutone oder, wenn sie sehr große Abmessungen erreichen, Batholithe genannt. Da in den für Plutonite typischen Bildungstiefen von mehreren Kilometern relativ hohe Temperaturen herrschen, läuft die Kristallisation langsamer ab als bei Magma, das bis an die Erdoberfläche aufgedrungen ist (Lava), und aus dem die Vulkanite hervorgehen. Deshalb weisen Plutonite eine typisch großkörnige Textur auf.
  • Intrusive rock forms within Earth's crust from the crystallization of magma. Magma slowly pushes up from deep within the earth into any cracks or spaces it can find, sometimes pushing existing country rock out of the way, a process that can take millions of years. As the rock slowly cools into a solid, the different parts of the magma crystallize into minerals. Many mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada in California, are formed mostly from large granite (or related rock) intrusions. Intrusions are one of the two ways igneous rock can form; the other is extrusive rock, that is, a volcanic eruption or similar event. Technically speaking, an intrusion is any formation of intrusive igneous rock; rock formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of the planet. In contrast, an extrusion consists of extrusive rock; rock formed above the surface of the crust. Intrusions vary widely, from mountain-range-sized batholiths to thin veinlike fracture fillings of aplite or pegmatite. When exposed by erosion, these cores called batholiths may occupy huge areas of Earth's surface. Large bodies of magma that solidify underground before they reach the surface of the crust are called plutons. Coarse-grained intrusive igneous rocks that form at depth within the earth are called abyssal while those that form near the surface are called subvolcanic or hypabyssal. Intrusive structures are often classified according to whether or not they are parallel to the bedding planes or foliation of the country rock: if the intrusion is parallel the body is concordant, otherwise it is discordant. A well-known example of an intrusion is Devils Tower.
  • Les roches plutoniques sont des roches magmatiques grenues, en général de grande extension géographique (formant un pluton). On les rencontre dans les massifs montagneux, jeunes (Alpes, Himalaya, Andes) ou vieux (Massif armoricain, Massif central). Les roches plutoniques se forment par refroidissement lent d'un magma. C'est la lenteur du refroidissement (typiquement, plusieurs dizaines de milliers d'années) qui permet la formation de gros cristaux (au minimum, visibles à l’œil nu). Elle est due à la grande profondeur de mise en place du pluton. Les roches plutoniques affleurent ensuite grâce à l'érosion qui cisèle les montagnes et retire les couches de terrain sous lesquelles le pluton s'était installé. Les roches filoniennes (aplites, pegmatites), formées en périphérie des plutons, sont parfois classées parmi les roches plutoniques. Mais elles sont plutôt considérées comme un groupe intermédiaire entre les roches plutoniques et les roches volcaniques.
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