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Giorgi Eristavi (Georgian: გიორგი ერისთავი) (1813 – September 9, 1864) was a Georgian playwright, poet, journalist, and the founder of modern Georgian theatre. Prince Giorgi Eristavi was born in the village of Odzisi (near Dusheti) of a prominent noble family, who had once served as the eristavi ("duke") of Ksani for the kings of Georgia. He received his early education in Tiflis and Moscow. On return to Georgia, he became involved with the underground society which plotted a coup against the Imperial Russian rule. He had his first poem published in 1832. This was An Ossetic Tale (ოსური მოთხრობა; revised and republished as Zare and Qanimat, ზარე და ყანიმათ, in 1853), a story of ill-fated lovers set against the background of the struggle of Georgian and Ossetian mountaineers against the Per

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  • Giorgi Eristavi
  • Эристави, Георгий Давидович
  • Giorgi Eristavi
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  • Георгий Давидович Эристави (груз. გიორგი ერისთავი; 1811—1864) — грузинский писатель и драматург, режиссёр, актёр, общественный деятель, переводчик.
  • Giorgi Eristavi (Georgian: გიორგი ერისთავი) (1813 – September 9, 1864) was a Georgian playwright, poet, journalist, and the founder of modern Georgian theatre. Prince Giorgi Eristavi was born in the village of Odzisi (near Dusheti) of a prominent noble family, who had once served as the eristavi ("duke") of Ksani for the kings of Georgia. He received his early education in Tiflis and Moscow. On return to Georgia, he became involved with the underground society which plotted a coup against the Imperial Russian rule. He had his first poem published in 1832. This was An Ossetic Tale (ოსური მოთხრობა; revised and republished as Zare and Qanimat, ზარე და ყანიმათ, in 1853), a story of ill-fated lovers set against the background of the struggle of Georgian and Ossetian mountaineers against the Per
  • Le prince Giorgi Eristavi (géorgien : გიორგი ერისთავი ; 1813 - 9 septembre 1864) est un dramaturge, poète et journaliste géorgien. Il a fondé le théâtre géorgien moderne. Il naît en 1813 dans le village d'Odzissi (près de Douchéti) dans une grande famille noble qui compta des eristavi (ducs) de Ksani au service des rois de Géorgie. Il fait ses études à Tbilissi et Moscou. À son retour en Géorgie, il devient membre d'une société secrète qui prépare un soulèvement contre le pouvoir impérial russe. Son premier poème est publié en 1832 : il s'agit de « Une légende ossète » (ოსური მოთხრობა, revu et publié sous le nom ზარე და ყანიმათ (Zare da Qanimat) en 1853), histoire d'amour tragique sur fond de lutte des montagnards géorgiens et ossètes contre l'armée perse du chah Abbas II au XVIIe siècle.
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  • 1864-9-9
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  • 1813-0-0
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  • Giorgi Eristavi
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  • Georgian noble
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  • Giorgi
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  • male
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  • Eristavi
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  • Le prince Giorgi Eristavi (géorgien : გიორგი ერისთავი ; 1813 - 9 septembre 1864) est un dramaturge, poète et journaliste géorgien. Il a fondé le théâtre géorgien moderne. Il naît en 1813 dans le village d'Odzissi (près de Douchéti) dans une grande famille noble qui compta des eristavi (ducs) de Ksani au service des rois de Géorgie. Il fait ses études à Tbilissi et Moscou. À son retour en Géorgie, il devient membre d'une société secrète qui prépare un soulèvement contre le pouvoir impérial russe. Son premier poème est publié en 1832 : il s'agit de « Une légende ossète » (ოსური მოთხრობა, revu et publié sous le nom ზარე და ყანიმათ (Zare da Qanimat) en 1853), histoire d'amour tragique sur fond de lutte des montagnards géorgiens et ossètes contre l'armée perse du chah Abbas II au XVIIe siècle. Quand le complot contre le pouvoir impérial s'évente en 1832, Eristavi est envoyé un an en prison, puis quatre ans comme fantassin à Wilno (aujourd'hui Vilnius, Lituanie) où il apprend le polonais et est marqué par le romantisme d'Adam Mickiewicz. En 1842, il est autorisé à se réinstaller en Géorgie où il se marie. Il rejoint bientôt le service civil russe et devient l'assistant de Mikhail Vorontsov, vice-roi du Caucase. C'est sous le patronage de cet homme libéral qu'il prend la direction du Théâtre géorgien de Tbilissi, inactif depuis 1795. La compagnie offre sa première représentation le 1er janvier 1851 et occupe plus tard le nouveau théâtre sur la place centrale de Tbilissi (aujourd'hui Place de la Liberté). C'est presque seul qu'Eristavi crée et dirige la troupe et écrit ses premières comédies, originales ou traduites, dans lesquelles il tient le rôle principal. Il fonde et édite également les 24 numéros du journal littéraire Tsiskari et écrit ses premières critiques littéraires sous le nom russe de Gloukharitch (« fils du sourd »). Malgré sa loyauté envers l'administration russe, il raille le gouvernement impérial et le système vieillissant de l'aristocratie géorgienne dans ses meilleures pièces, comme Le Procès (დავა (Dava), 1840) et L'Accord familial (გაყრა, 1849). Eristavi s'attaque avec audace à un noble géorgien dégénéré qui, ayant perdu tous ses idéaux et rongé par l'envie et la colère, exploite ses serfs, à un bureaucrate russe corrompu et à un usurier arménien qui extorque la petite noblesse féodale. À l'inverse, il traite la nouvelle génération de libéraux idéalistes éduqués en Russie avec une sympathie condescendante. Ses pièces jouissent d'un réel engouement populaire et sont tolérées par Vorontsov. Cependant, quand Vorontsov quitte la Géorgie en 1854, Eristavi est forcé de quitter son poste. Il se retire dans le village de Khidistavi, près de Gori. Son protégé et successeur, Ivane Kereselidze, ne réussit à faire vivre la compagnie que deux ans ; le théâtre disparaît en 1856. En plus de ses comédies, de ses poèmes et de ses articles, on doit à Eristavi un compte-rendu de son voyage à Londres en 1862. Il meurt à Gori en 1864 et est enterré à l'église d'Ikorta.
  • Георгий Давидович Эристави (груз. გიორგი ერისთავი; 1811—1864) — грузинский писатель и драматург, режиссёр, актёр, общественный деятель, переводчик.
  • Giorgi Eristavi (Georgian: გიორგი ერისთავი) (1813 – September 9, 1864) was a Georgian playwright, poet, journalist, and the founder of modern Georgian theatre. Prince Giorgi Eristavi was born in the village of Odzisi (near Dusheti) of a prominent noble family, who had once served as the eristavi ("duke") of Ksani for the kings of Georgia. He received his early education in Tiflis and Moscow. On return to Georgia, he became involved with the underground society which plotted a coup against the Imperial Russian rule. He had his first poem published in 1832. This was An Ossetic Tale (ოსური მოთხრობა; revised and republished as Zare and Qanimat, ზარე და ყანიმათ, in 1853), a story of ill-fated lovers set against the background of the struggle of Georgian and Ossetian mountaineers against the Persian armies of Shah Abbas I in the 17th century. After the collapse of the anti-Russian plot in 1832, Eristavi spent a year in prison and four years as an exiled infantryman in Wilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania), where he mastered Polish and came under the influence of Adam Mickiewicz's Romanticism. In 1842, he was able to permanently return to Georgia where he married and joined the Russian civil service soon to become assistant to the Viceroy of the Caucasus Mikhail Vorontsov. Under the patronage of this liberal viceroy, Eristavi took charge of the Georgian theatre in Tiflis, dormant since 1795. The company premiered on January 1, 1851 and was later able to stage its performances in the new theatre building in the city’s central square. He almost single-handedly created and directed a troupe and wrote first actable comedies – original as well as translated – in which he himself took leading parts. He also created and edited the 24 issues of the literary journal Tsiskari ("Down") and, under the pseudonym Glukharich (Russian for "son of the deaf, or capercaillie"), wrote the first literary reviews. In spite of Eristavi’s loyal service in the Russian administration, the imperial government as well as the eroding system of Georgian aristocracy was a frequent subject of indignation and satire in his best plays such as The Lawsuit (დავა; 1840), and The Family Settlement (გაყრა; 1849). Eristavi boldly attacks a degenerating Georgian noble, who has lost all of his ideals and has much envy and anger, exploiting his serfs; a corrupt Russian bureaucrat and an Armenian money-lender who exploit the feuding gentry; and treats the newer, Russian-educated generation of idealist liberals with condescending sympathy. These plays had a popular support and were tolerated by Vorontsov. However, after Vorontsov's departure from Georgia in 1854, Eristavi was forced to resign. He retired to the village of Khidistavi near Gori. His protégé and successor, Ivane Kereselidze, was able to keep the company for only two years and, in 1856, the theatre went defunct. Apart from comedies, lyrics and journalism, Eristavi also wrote an account of his 1862 journey to London to inspect machinery. He died in Gori in 1864 and was buried at the Ikorta church.
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