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In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is also known as the surroundings or neighborhood, and in thermodynamics, as the reservoir. Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), linear momentum, angular momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties. In some disciplines, such as information theory, information may also be exchanged. The environment is ignored in analysis of the system, except in regard to these interactions.

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  • Ambiente (termodinamica)
  • Среда (теория систем)
  • Environment (systems)
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  • Сре́да (в теории систем) — совокупность объектов, изменение свойств которых влияет на систему, а также тех объектов, чьи свойства меняются под воздействием поведения системы. Сре́да, являясь зависимым понятием, всегда рассматривается по отношению к некоторой системе и представляет собой множество всех элементов, которые не входят в данную систему, но с которыми данная система может взаимодействовать.
  • In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is also known as the surroundings or neighborhood, and in thermodynamics, as the reservoir. Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), linear momentum, angular momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties. In some disciplines, such as information theory, information may also be exchanged. The environment is ignored in analysis of the system, except in regard to these interactions.
  • In termodinamica l'ambiente esterno (o più semplicemente l'ambiente) rappresenta la parte di universo che esula dall'oggetto di studio (detto "sistema"). L'ambiente è separato dal sistema tramite una superficie, reale o immaginaria, definita contorno del sistema e attraverso la quale possono avvenire scambi di calore, lavoro, materia o quantità di moto. A seconda del tipo di interazione tra ambiente e sistema, si possono avere i seguenti casi:
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  • In termodinamica l'ambiente esterno (o più semplicemente l'ambiente) rappresenta la parte di universo che esula dall'oggetto di studio (detto "sistema"). L'ambiente è separato dal sistema tramite una superficie, reale o immaginaria, definita contorno del sistema e attraverso la quale possono avvenire scambi di calore, lavoro, materia o quantità di moto. A seconda del tipo di interazione tra ambiente e sistema, si possono avere i seguenti casi: * per un sistema chiuso l'ambiente è in grado di interagire con un il sistema scambiando energia ma non materia; * un sistema isolato non scambia né energia né materia con l'ambiente; * con un sistema aperto potranno avvenire invece sia scambi di materia che di energia con l'ambiente. Considerando l'insieme sistema + ambiente si giunge a un sistema isolato; tale sistema rappresenta la totalità dell'universo termodinamico è non scambia né energia né materia.
  • Сре́да (в теории систем) — совокупность объектов, изменение свойств которых влияет на систему, а также тех объектов, чьи свойства меняются под воздействием поведения системы. Сре́да, являясь зависимым понятием, всегда рассматривается по отношению к некоторой системе и представляет собой множество всех элементов, которые не входят в данную систему, но с которыми данная система может взаимодействовать.
  • In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is also known as the surroundings or neighborhood, and in thermodynamics, as the reservoir. Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), linear momentum, angular momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties. In some disciplines, such as information theory, information may also be exchanged. The environment is ignored in analysis of the system, except in regard to these interactions.
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