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Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Tissue formation during embryonic development, wound healing and immune responses all require the orchestrated movement of cells in particular directions to specific locations. Errors during this process have serious consequences, including intellectual disability, vascular disease, tumor formation and metastasis. An understanding of the mechanism by which cells migrate may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for controlling, for example, invasive tumour cells. Cells often migrate in response to specific external signals, including chemical signals and mechanical signals.

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rdf:type
rdfs:label
  • Zellmigration
  • Cell migration
  • Migración celular
  • 细胞迁移
rdfs:comment
  • Unter Zellmigration (latein. migrare ‚wandern‘) versteht man die aktive Ortsveränderung (Lokomotion) von Zellen oder Zellverbänden. Der Überbegriff „Migration“ schließt die ungerichtete Spontanbewegung (random migration), die gerichtete, chemotaktische Bewegung und die Änderung der Bewegungsgeschwindigkeit (Chemokinetik) ein. Innerhalb eines metazoischen Organismus sind nur gewisse Zellen zur Migration befähigt: embryonale Zellen, und im reifen Organismus bestimmte Zelltypen der Bindegewebe, der Gefäße, manche Epithelien, Tumorzellen und in besonders hohem Maße die Zellen des Immunsystems und die Spermien. Bei prokaryotischen Organismen findet Migration mit Hilfe von Geißeln und Cilien statt.
  • La migración celular es un proceso importante en el desarrollo y el mantenimiento de los organismos pluricelulares. La formación de tejido durante el desarrollo embrionario, la cicatrización y la respuesta inmune requieren de movimientos celulares sincronizados en una dirección particular y hacia sitios específicos. Los errores durante este proceso tienen consecuencias serias, incluyendo retraso mental, enfermedades cardiovasculares y formación de tumores y metástasis. Un entendimiento del mecanismo por el cual las células migran podría permitir el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas novedosas para controlar, por ejemplo, las células tumorales invasivas. A menudo las células migran en respuesta a, y hacia, señales exteriores específicas; este proceso se llama quimiotaxis.
  • 细胞迁移,与细胞移动同义,与细胞运动義近,指的是细胞在接收到迁移信号或感受到某些物质的浓度梯度后而产生的移动。移動过程中,细胞不断重复着向前方伸出突觸/偽足,然后牵拉後方胞体的循环过程。细胞骨架和其结合蛋白,還有細胞間質是这個过程的物质基础,另外还有多种物质會对之进行精密调节。 若以移動方式與型態來比較,细胞迁移是通过胞体形变进行的定向移动,这有别于其他;如细胞靠鞭毛与纤毛的运动、或是细胞随血流而发生的位置变化,而且就移動速度來看,相比起后两者,细胞迁移要慢得多。舉例而言:成纤维细胞的移动速度为1微米每分,若以精子的平均游動速度56.44微米/每秒,即3384微米/每分來比較,兩者差距約3000倍以上。角膜细胞即使比成纤维细胞快上十倍,但是要完成从不来梅到汉堡这93公里的路程仍需要17123年。而且细胞用力甚轻。成纤维细胞胞体收缩的力只有2×10−7牛顿,而角膜细胞的则是2×10−8牛顿(一牛顿约为人用手举起一鸡蛋所用的力道)。 但此等「步缓力微」的細胞遷移,却是细胞觅食、傷口痊癒、胚胎發生、免疫反應、感染和癌症转移等等生理现象所涉及到的。因此细胞迁移是目前细胞生物学研究的一个主要課題,科学家們试图通过对细胞迁移的研究,在阻止癌症转移、異體植皮等医学应用方面取得更大成果。也因為細胞遷移獨有的运动特性,成為今生物学熱門研究方向。
  • Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Tissue formation during embryonic development, wound healing and immune responses all require the orchestrated movement of cells in particular directions to specific locations. Errors during this process have serious consequences, including intellectual disability, vascular disease, tumor formation and metastasis. An understanding of the mechanism by which cells migrate may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for controlling, for example, invasive tumour cells. Cells often migrate in response to specific external signals, including chemical signals and mechanical signals.
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  • Unter Zellmigration (latein. migrare ‚wandern‘) versteht man die aktive Ortsveränderung (Lokomotion) von Zellen oder Zellverbänden. Der Überbegriff „Migration“ schließt die ungerichtete Spontanbewegung (random migration), die gerichtete, chemotaktische Bewegung und die Änderung der Bewegungsgeschwindigkeit (Chemokinetik) ein. Innerhalb eines metazoischen Organismus sind nur gewisse Zellen zur Migration befähigt: embryonale Zellen, und im reifen Organismus bestimmte Zelltypen der Bindegewebe, der Gefäße, manche Epithelien, Tumorzellen und in besonders hohem Maße die Zellen des Immunsystems und die Spermien. Bei prokaryotischen Organismen findet Migration mit Hilfe von Geißeln und Cilien statt.
  • Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Tissue formation during embryonic development, wound healing and immune responses all require the orchestrated movement of cells in particular directions to specific locations. Errors during this process have serious consequences, including intellectual disability, vascular disease, tumor formation and metastasis. An understanding of the mechanism by which cells migrate may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for controlling, for example, invasive tumour cells. Cells often migrate in response to specific external signals, including chemical signals and mechanical signals. Due to the highly viscous environment (low Reynolds number), cells need to permanently produce forces in order to move. Cells achieve active movement by very different mechanisms. Many less complex prokaryotic organisms (and sperm cells) use flagella or cilia to propel themselves. Eukaryotic cell migration typically is far more complex and can consist of combinations of different migration mechanisms. It generally involves drastic changes in cell shape which are driven by the cytoskeleton. Two very distinct migration scenarios are crawling motion (most commonly studied) and blebbing motility.
  • La migración celular es un proceso importante en el desarrollo y el mantenimiento de los organismos pluricelulares. La formación de tejido durante el desarrollo embrionario, la cicatrización y la respuesta inmune requieren de movimientos celulares sincronizados en una dirección particular y hacia sitios específicos. Los errores durante este proceso tienen consecuencias serias, incluyendo retraso mental, enfermedades cardiovasculares y formación de tumores y metástasis. Un entendimiento del mecanismo por el cual las células migran podría permitir el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas novedosas para controlar, por ejemplo, las células tumorales invasivas. A menudo las células migran en respuesta a, y hacia, señales exteriores específicas; este proceso se llama quimiotaxis.
  • 细胞迁移,与细胞移动同义,与细胞运动義近,指的是细胞在接收到迁移信号或感受到某些物质的浓度梯度后而产生的移动。移動过程中,细胞不断重复着向前方伸出突觸/偽足,然后牵拉後方胞体的循环过程。细胞骨架和其结合蛋白,還有細胞間質是这個过程的物质基础,另外还有多种物质會对之进行精密调节。 若以移動方式與型態來比較,细胞迁移是通过胞体形变进行的定向移动,这有别于其他;如细胞靠鞭毛与纤毛的运动、或是细胞随血流而发生的位置变化,而且就移動速度來看,相比起后两者,细胞迁移要慢得多。舉例而言:成纤维细胞的移动速度为1微米每分,若以精子的平均游動速度56.44微米/每秒,即3384微米/每分來比較,兩者差距約3000倍以上。角膜细胞即使比成纤维细胞快上十倍,但是要完成从不来梅到汉堡这93公里的路程仍需要17123年。而且细胞用力甚轻。成纤维细胞胞体收缩的力只有2×10−7牛顿,而角膜细胞的则是2×10−8牛顿(一牛顿约为人用手举起一鸡蛋所用的力道)。 但此等「步缓力微」的細胞遷移,却是细胞觅食、傷口痊癒、胚胎發生、免疫反應、感染和癌症转移等等生理现象所涉及到的。因此细胞迁移是目前细胞生物学研究的一个主要課題,科学家們试图通过对细胞迁移的研究,在阻止癌症转移、異體植皮等医学应用方面取得更大成果。也因為細胞遷移獨有的运动特性,成為今生物学熱門研究方向。
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