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The antipassive voice (abbreviated ANTIP or AP) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case. This construction is similar to the passive voice, in that it decreases the verb's valency by one; the passive by deleting the subject and "promoting" the accusative object to a nominative subject, the antipassive by deleting the object and "promoting" the ergative agent to an absolutive subject. The antipassive voice is found in some Mayan, Salishan, Northeast Caucasian, Austronesian, and Australian languages. Only one Amazonian language, Cavineña, has the antipassive.

AttributesValues
rdf:type
rdfs:label
  • Antipassive voice
  • Antipassiv
  • Voz antipasiva
  • Antipassif
  • Diatesi antipassiva
  • 逆受動態
  • Антипассив
  • 反被動語態
rdfs:comment
  • Das Antipassiv ist eine Form der Diathese, gehört also zur Verbmorphologie. Eine Antipassiv-Form liegt vor, wenn das primäre Objekt einer transitiven Handlung nicht ausgedrückt wird, oder nur in Form einer (weglassbaren) Adverbialbestimmung auftritt. Manchmal kann das eigentlich primäre Objekt in solchen Konstruktionen auch als sekundäres Objekt ausgedrückt werden und trägt dann einen anderen Kasus. Das primäre Objekt ist je nach Sprache entweder das direkte oder das indirekte Objekt. In den meisten Sprachen kann nur eines der beiden Objekte durch ein Antipassiv getilgt werden.
  • L'antipassif est une notion linguistique récente définie par Silverstein en 1968 lors d'un exposé sur le chinook. Selon sa définition (“I have termed this -ki- form the ANTIPASSIVE construction, playing upon its inverse equivalence to a passive of accusative languages, because the sense is clearly equivalent to a transitive, though the form is intransitive”), l'antipassif est une forme symétrique du passif que l'on retrouve dans les langues dites à constructions ergatives. Ainsi, l'antipassif efface l'objet de la construction transitive alors que le passif efface son sujet.
  • 逆受動態(ぎゃくじゅどうたい、antipassive voice)とは、能動態と異なる特別な形式を持つ有標な態の一つである。能動態の他動詞の主語は逆受動態の主語となり、能動態の他動詞の目的語は逆受動態の斜格語となるか、あるいは表現されない。。
  • 反被動語態(antipassive voice,常縮寫為antip或ap)是一種在及物動詞上用以將受詞「刪去」的語態。它和被動語態多少有相似之處,差別在於被動語態「刪去」主詞,反被動語態「刪去」受詞。反被動語態存在於許多澳大利亚原住民语言和美洲原住民語言之中。 反被動語態可見於作通格語言中,在其中,反被動語態被用以「刪去」受詞並將本來由作格表達的施事者(主詞)角色改以通格表達;此外,反被動語態亦可見於相當數量動詞同時對主詞和受詞有人稱一致的主賓格語言中,在其中,反被動語態被用以刪去動詞的受詞一致詞綴,像馬賽語(Maasai language)、科滿車語(Comanche language)和卡為羅語(Cahuilla language)等語言皆為此種有反被動語態的(且同時對主詞和受詞有人稱一致的)主賓格語言;此外,相當數量的正動-反動語言(direct–inverse language)亦有反被動語態。 反被動語態在靜動語言(Active-Stative language)以及動詞不與名詞保持一致或只與一個論元保持一致的主賓格語言中很少見,僅有像克隆戈語(Krongo language)和桑海語(Songhay languages)中的科依羅玻羅‧散尼語(Koyraboro Senni)等少數的語言為此規則的例外,而這兩種語言皆有某種在有反被動語態的較典型的語言中少見的反被動標記。
  • Антипасси́в — это косвенный залог глагола, выражающий самодостаточное действие субъекта или состояние, наступившее в результате такого действия. Исходное дополнение (пациенс) идёт на понижение, подлежащее (агенс) — повышается. Чаще всего антипассив встречается в языках эргативного строя.
  • The antipassive voice (abbreviated ANTIP or AP) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case. This construction is similar to the passive voice, in that it decreases the verb's valency by one; the passive by deleting the subject and "promoting" the accusative object to a nominative subject, the antipassive by deleting the object and "promoting" the ergative agent to an absolutive subject. The antipassive voice is found in some Mayan, Salishan, Northeast Caucasian, Austronesian, and Australian languages. Only one Amazonian language, Cavineña, has the antipassive.
  • La voz antipasiva es un tipo de voz gramatical que o bien no incluye el objeto o bien incluye el objeto en un caso oblicuo. Esta construcción es análoga (en las lenguas ergativas) a la voz pasiva en las lenguas acusativas, en tanto disminuye la valencia del verbo en un argumento: el pasivo al eliminar el sujeto de la voz activa y promover el objeto de la activa a la función de sujeto de la pasiva; la antipasiva al eliminar el objeto de la construcción activa y convertir al agente de la oración transitiva en sujeto de la antipasiva.
  • La voce verbale antipassiva è un tipo di diatesi usata soprattutto nelle lingue ergative. L'antipassiva modifica i verbi transitivi togliendo l'oggetto (flesso al caso assolutivo) e cambia l'agente flettendolo al caso assolutivo invece che all'ergativo. Normalmente le lingue ergative pongono il soggetto all'ergativo e l'oggetto all'assolutivo, oppure il soggetto di un verbo intransitivo all'assolutivo. "Maria-ERG mangia la torta-ASS." → "Maria-ASS mangia.""Maria-ERG sta dicendo la verità-ASS." → "Maria-ASS sta parlando." "Maria-ERG mangia la torta-ASS." → "Maria-ASS mangia dalla torta."
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  • The antipassive voice (abbreviated ANTIP or AP) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case. This construction is similar to the passive voice, in that it decreases the verb's valency by one; the passive by deleting the subject and "promoting" the accusative object to a nominative subject, the antipassive by deleting the object and "promoting" the ergative agent to an absolutive subject. The antipassive voice is found in some Mayan, Salishan, Northeast Caucasian, Austronesian, and Australian languages. Only one Amazonian language, Cavineña, has the antipassive. The antipassive voice is found in ergative languages where the deletion of an object "demotes" the subject from ergative case to absolutive case. In certain accusative languages that have verbal agreement with both subject and object, the antipassive is usually formed by deletion of the object affix. Examples of accusative languages with this type of antipassive are Maasai, Comanche and Cahuilla. A number of direct–inverse languages also have the antipassive voice. The antipassive voice is very rare in active–stative languages generally and in nominative–accusative languages that have only one-place or no verbal agreement. There are a very few exceptions to this rule, such as Krongo and the Songhay language Koyraboro Senni language, both of which rely on dedicated antipassive markers that are rare in the more typical type of language with an antipassive. "Mary-ERG eats pie-ABS." → "Mary-ABS eats.""He-ERG is speaking the truth-ABS." → "He-ABS is speaking." As with passive voice, the deleted argument can be re-introduced as an optional complement or oblique argument. "Mary-ERG eats pie-ABS." → "Mary-ABS eats from the pie." Antipassives frequently convey aspectual or modal information, and may cast the clause as imperfective, inceptive, or potential. The purpose of antipassive construction is often to make certain arguments available as pivots for relativization, coordination of sentences or similar constructions. For example in Dyirbal the omitted argument in conjoined sentences must be in absolutive case. Thus, the following sentence is ungrammatical: *baji jaɽa bani-ɲu balan ɟuɡumbil buɽa-nM-ABS man-ABS come-NFUT F-ABS woman-ABS see-NFUT'The man came and saw the woman' In the conjoined sentence the omitted argument (the man) would have to be in ergative case, being the agent of a transitive verb (to see). This is not allowed in Dyirbal. In order to make this sentence grammatical, the antipassive, which promotes the original ergative to absolutive - and puts the former absolutive (the woman) into dative case -, has to be used: baji jaɽa bani-ɲu baɡun ɟuɡumbil-ɡu buɽal-ŋa-ɲuM-ABS man-ABS come-NFUT F-DAT woman-DAT see-APASS-NFUT'The man came and saw the woman'
  • Das Antipassiv ist eine Form der Diathese, gehört also zur Verbmorphologie. Eine Antipassiv-Form liegt vor, wenn das primäre Objekt einer transitiven Handlung nicht ausgedrückt wird, oder nur in Form einer (weglassbaren) Adverbialbestimmung auftritt. Manchmal kann das eigentlich primäre Objekt in solchen Konstruktionen auch als sekundäres Objekt ausgedrückt werden und trägt dann einen anderen Kasus. Das primäre Objekt ist je nach Sprache entweder das direkte oder das indirekte Objekt. In den meisten Sprachen kann nur eines der beiden Objekte durch ein Antipassiv getilgt werden.
  • L'antipassif est une notion linguistique récente définie par Silverstein en 1968 lors d'un exposé sur le chinook. Selon sa définition (“I have termed this -ki- form the ANTIPASSIVE construction, playing upon its inverse equivalence to a passive of accusative languages, because the sense is clearly equivalent to a transitive, though the form is intransitive”), l'antipassif est une forme symétrique du passif que l'on retrouve dans les langues dites à constructions ergatives. Ainsi, l'antipassif efface l'objet de la construction transitive alors que le passif efface son sujet.
  • La voz antipasiva es un tipo de voz gramatical que o bien no incluye el objeto o bien incluye el objeto en un caso oblicuo. Esta construcción es análoga (en las lenguas ergativas) a la voz pasiva en las lenguas acusativas, en tanto disminuye la valencia del verbo en un argumento: el pasivo al eliminar el sujeto de la voz activa y promover el objeto de la activa a la función de sujeto de la pasiva; la antipasiva al eliminar el objeto de la construcción activa y convertir al agente de la oración transitiva en sujeto de la antipasiva. Ejemplo (Dyirbal; lengua australiana con morfología y sintaxis ergativa, pero con split acusativo en el sistema pronominal; en el ejemplo se ha simplificado el sistema de marcadores del nombre de un modo que no afecta al fenómeno considerado) Activa:ɲana (nosotros-NOM) ñurra-na (vosotros-AC) bura-n (ver-NO FUT)"Nosotros(A) os(P) vimos"Antipasiva:ɲana (nosotros-NOM) bural-ɲa-ñu (ver-ANTIPAS-NO FUT) ñurra-ngu (vosotros-DAT)"Nosotros(S) os(DAT) vimos" La voz antipasiva es característica de las lenguas ergativas, y se da sólo excepcionalmente en lenguas acusativas. Algunas lenguas que utilizan normalmente la voz antipasiva son las aborígenes de Australia y las indígenas de América.
  • La voce verbale antipassiva è un tipo di diatesi usata soprattutto nelle lingue ergative. L'antipassiva modifica i verbi transitivi togliendo l'oggetto (flesso al caso assolutivo) e cambia l'agente flettendolo al caso assolutivo invece che all'ergativo. Normalmente le lingue ergative pongono il soggetto all'ergativo e l'oggetto all'assolutivo, oppure il soggetto di un verbo intransitivo all'assolutivo. "Maria-ERG mangia la torta-ASS." → "Maria-ASS mangia.""Maria-ERG sta dicendo la verità-ASS." → "Maria-ASS sta parlando." La diatesi antipassiva, invece, sostituisce l'oggetto sottinteso con un complemento indiretto. "Maria-ERG mangia la torta-ASS." → "Maria-ASS mangia dalla torta." La diatesi antipassiva comunica spesso informazioni riguardanti l'aspetto e il modo e può assegnare ad una proposizione l'aspetto imperfettivo, incettivo oppure potenziale. Lo scopo di una costruzione antipassiva è spesso quello di indicare univocamente l'oggetto nelle proposizioni relative, nelle proposizioni coordinate o costruzioni simili. Nel dyirbal, per esempio, l'oggetto sottinteso nelle frasi coordinate deve essere declinato all'assolutivo. La seguente frase è perciò scorretta grammaticalmente: *bayi yaɽa bani-nʲu balan dʲugumbil buɽa-nM-ASS uomo-ASS arrivare-NFUT F-ASS donna-ASS vedere-NFUT"L'uomo arrivò e vide la donna" M e F sono dei determinativi declinati al maschile e al femminile assolutivo Nelle frasi coordinate, l'oggetto (l'uomo) della frase "(egli) vide la donna" andrebbe in caso ergativo, essendo l'agente di un verbo transitivo (vedere) e contemporaneamente in assolutivo, essendo il soggetto di un verbo intransitivo (arrivare). Ciò non è permesso nella lingua Dyirbal. Per ovviare al problema, la voce antipassiva cambia l'originale ergativo in un assolutivo e declina l'originale assolutivo (la donna) in un caso dativo: bayi yaɽa bani-nʲu bagun dʲugumbil-gu buɽal-ŋa-nʲuM-ASS uomo-ASS arrivare-NFUT F-DAT donna-DAT vedere-APASS-NFUT"l'uomo arrivò e vide la donna"+
  • 逆受動態(ぎゃくじゅどうたい、antipassive voice)とは、能動態と異なる特別な形式を持つ有標な態の一つである。能動態の他動詞の主語は逆受動態の主語となり、能動態の他動詞の目的語は逆受動態の斜格語となるか、あるいは表現されない。。
  • 反被動語態(antipassive voice,常縮寫為antip或ap)是一種在及物動詞上用以將受詞「刪去」的語態。它和被動語態多少有相似之處,差別在於被動語態「刪去」主詞,反被動語態「刪去」受詞。反被動語態存在於許多澳大利亚原住民语言和美洲原住民語言之中。 反被動語態可見於作通格語言中,在其中,反被動語態被用以「刪去」受詞並將本來由作格表達的施事者(主詞)角色改以通格表達;此外,反被動語態亦可見於相當數量動詞同時對主詞和受詞有人稱一致的主賓格語言中,在其中,反被動語態被用以刪去動詞的受詞一致詞綴,像馬賽語(Maasai language)、科滿車語(Comanche language)和卡為羅語(Cahuilla language)等語言皆為此種有反被動語態的(且同時對主詞和受詞有人稱一致的)主賓格語言;此外,相當數量的正動-反動語言(direct–inverse language)亦有反被動語態。 反被動語態在靜動語言(Active-Stative language)以及動詞不與名詞保持一致或只與一個論元保持一致的主賓格語言中很少見,僅有像克隆戈語(Krongo language)和桑海語(Songhay languages)中的科依羅玻羅‧散尼語(Koyraboro Senni)等少數的語言為此規則的例外,而這兩種語言皆有某種在有反被動語態的較典型的語言中少見的反被動標記。
  • Антипасси́в — это косвенный залог глагола, выражающий самодостаточное действие субъекта или состояние, наступившее в результате такого действия. Исходное дополнение (пациенс) идёт на понижение, подлежащее (агенс) — повышается. Чаще всего антипассив встречается в языках эргативного строя.
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